Hope for patients with damaged facial bones - new biomaterial from Košice
The insufficient bone healing in the facial area is a serious problem in the population, regardless of age. The team of scientists from Košice has successfully moved the existing options for the treatment of facial bone tissue. The innovative biomaterial, which was developed and experimentally tested, supports and stimulates bone healing without eliciting a negative immune response.
Bone damages caused by injuries, infections, tumours and congenital disorders are one of the main causes of bone damage. They are associated not only with many health but also aesthetic problems. Scientists developing new bone implants have long sought to achieve optimal interaction between the body and the inserted implant. Excellent results in this area were achieved by a scientific team from the Institute of Materials Research SAS (ÚMV SAV), University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (UVLF) in Košice and Solmea, s.r.o. company.
Researchers from ÚMV SAV focused on the development of implants in the form of ceramic plates and self-solidifying biocements in the form of pastes. “We have developed a modified calcium-phosphate biocement containing a soluble nanocrystalline component that ensures rapid and significant excretion of calcium ions during solidification. Thanks to this, our material solidifies quickly, it is porous in its final form, and the compressive strength it achieves is close to bone tissue,” said Ľubomír Medvecký from ÚMV SAV when describing the research result, who, together with Ján Danek from UVLF in Košice, manages and coordinates the scientific team. "We successfully tested the effectiveness of biocement by inserting biocement paste into the site of bone damage after the pig's teeth were pulled out, whereas, after healing, the bone thickness was preserved and qualitatively identical bone tissue was formed," added Ľ. Medvecký.
The effectiveness, healing efficiency and quality of developed biomaterials in preclinical research were monitored by M. Giretová, R. Štulajterová (ÚMV SAV) and L. Krešáková (ÚVLF) on large animal models. A ceramic plate made of innovated biomaterial was implanted in the pig's jaw-bone. The biomaterial was gradually resorbed at the site of the defect and successfully replaced with new bone tissue characteristic of complete bone tissue regeneration.
"The ceramic implant significantly supported the healing of bone tissue and increased the activity of bone as well as other cell types involved in the formation of new bone," explained Katarína Vdoviaková from UVLF in Košice, a member of the scientific team.
Innovative biomaterials have a number of other benefits. "Our ceramic implant is characterised by a suitable composition, structure, as well as a specific method of preparation," explains Ľ. Medvecký and continues: “It´s non-toxic, harmless to health, does not cause an inflammatory reaction and can be prepared in the desired form. The undeniable advantage is its observed functionality even after application without the use of subsequently cultivated stem cells that were isolated from the patient, which significantly reduces the technical and financial complexity of the operation compared to frequently used implants with cells preferred for similar types of facial surgeries.“
The scientific team led by Andrej Jenča from SOLMEA s. r. o. company plans to apply and test the new biomaterials in a short time in clinical trials, which are necessary for use in practice.