In: Studia Politica Slovaca, vol. 3, no. 1
Karol Sorby Ml.
Year, pages: 2010, 71 - 86
The First World War and the Middle East; partition of the Ottoman Arab provinces; the Cairo conference of 1921; creation of the Iraqi monarchy
The Cairo Conference of 1921. (Foundations of British Policy in the Middle East after the First World War): The Hāshimite claim to Arab leadership had been born almost haphazardly in the circumstances of the First World War. It was far from being accepted by all the Arabs and would always suffer from its sponsorship by Britain. But the total Ottoman collapse did give Britain and France a brief period in which they felt that they could act largely as they pleased. It was something that would otherwise have been unimaginable for two invading Christian powers. Inducing Arabs under the rule of the Ottoman Turks to rebel against their oppressors the British and French during the First World War convinced the Hāshimite clan that they would rule over the Arab Middle East. Later on, having been awarded by the League of Nations the mandates for the former Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire the victorious powers began to consider those territories as their colonies. However, the Allies’ decisions on the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire were not carried out peacefully. Apart from the fighting in Syria, there were uprisings in Egypt, Iraq and Palestine, because the Arab hopes had been thwarted by the establishment of administrations on colonial lines with virtually no Arab participation. The Arab rebellions could be put down only at heavy costs. The post-war economy caused the British government to act. Winston Churchill as Colonial Secretary, with T. E. Lawrence as adviser, held a conference in Cairo in March 1921. No Arabs were present, but the meeting was attended by the high commissioners for Iraq, Egypt and Palestine. It was decided to carry out the arrangement already prepared in London to make Amīr Faysal King of Iraq. Churchill’s decision regarding Iraq was to have calamitous consequences as quite different communities – the Sunnī Muslim Arabs, Sunnī Muslim Kurds, and Shīcī Muslim Arabs – were put under a single ruler. The Hāshimite Amīr Faysal was made King of a land with which he had no connection. Many people say, that Churchill’s decision of 1921 continue to cause terrible grief to Iraq’s indigenous people and anxiety to the rest of the world.
How to cite:
Sorby Ml., K. 2010. Káhirská konferencia 1921. Kladenie základov britskej politiky na Blízkom východe po prvej svetovej vojne. In Studia Politica Slovaca, vol. 3, no.1, pp. 71-86. 1337-8163.
Sorby Ml., K. (2010). Káhirská konferencia 1921. Kladenie základov britskej politiky na Blízkom východe po prvej svetovej vojne. Studia Politica Slovaca, 3(1), 71-86. 1337-8163.