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Information Page of SAS Organisation

Project

Institute of Parasitology

International Projects

COMBAR - Combatting anthelmintic resistance in ruminants

Boj proti rezistencii na antihelmintiká u prežúvavcov

Duration: 1. 9. 2017 - 1. 9. 2021
Program: COST
Project leader: doc. MVDr. Várady Marián DrSc.
Project web page:http://www.cost.eu/COST_Actions/ca/CA16230

FunProd - Relationships between functional diversity and food production and quality under ecological intensification

Funkčná biodiverzita, výroba potravín, ekologické poľnohospodárstvo a vzťahy medzi nimi.

Duration: 1. 1. 2020 - 31. 1. 2022
Program: ERANET
Project leader: Ing. Čerevková Andrea PhD.
Annotation:Agricultural intensification contributes to global food security and health by supplying the food demand of a growing human population, but also causes environmental problems. Ecological intensification has been proposed as viable alternative to achieve a balance between negative environmental issues, such as the ongoing loss of biodiversity, and sufficiently high and qualitative food production. The functional diversity of biotic communities is an understudied dimension of biodiversity which may be particularly relevant for the links between ecological intensification, biodiversity, pollination, pest control and human food and livestock fodder production. Previous studies addressed the effects of ecological intensification on the functional diversity of single taxonomic groups in individual countries without considering links between functional diversity and plant, animal or human health across different landscapes and climatic regions. FunProd will undertake the joint synthesis of existing databases on these aspects in organic agriculture and permanent grasslands in Europe to provide a significant contribution to the evidence base for such links across different climatic regions and a range of landscapes. Closing this knowledge gap will contribute to the development of nature-based agricultural systems that provide simultaneously high levels of plant protection and health, together with sufficient productivity and quality to support the global human population, all while reducing environmental impact of agriculture. To this end, FunProd will address the following specific questions: • Does ecological intensification enhance the functional diversity of biotic communities across taxonomic groups compared to conventional intensification and does the effect depend on climatic conditions, landscape structure and/or agricultural system? • Does the effect of ecological intensification on the functional diversity of local communities explain the observed effect of ecological intensification on crop protection, pollination and health? Can a high functional diversity reduce the yield gap between agricultural production systems that focus on ecological and conventional intensification in Europe, and thereby contribute to future food security and quality?

In vivo activity of silymarin flavonolignans on model infection induced with cestode Mesocestoides vogae in mice.

In vivo aktivita silymarínových flavonolignanov na modelovú infekciu vyvolanú pásomnicou Mesocestoides vogae u myší.

Duration: 1. 1. 2018 - 31. 12. 2021
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: RNDr. Hrčková Gabriela DrSc.
Annotation:Medically important species of cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium cause serious diseases in various hosts, while humans can be infected accidentally. It is estimated that millions of people suffer from these disease mostly in resource-poor communities worldwide with limited therapeutic possibilities. Infection with cestode Mesocestoides vogae shares many pathological and molecular similarities with these diseases and was recommended by WHO (1996) as a suitable model in pharmacological, molecular and immunological studies. Silymarin represents mixture of flavonolignans, namely silybin, isosilibyn A, silydianin and silychristin. The pleiotropic mode of action of silymarin (antioxidant, antifibrotic, immunomodulatory, anti-cancer) has been reported but cestocidal potential of silymarin flavonolignans has not been studied in vivo. Recently we have demonstrated profound larvicidal activity due to interference with metabolic and enzymatic pathways in M. vogae larvae. The objective of present project is to reveal complex effects of individual flavonolignans during M. vogae infection in BALB/c mice.

SAV-18-20 - Classical and molecular karyology of Diphyllobothrium parasites: detection of phylogenetically informative markers.

Klasická a molekulárna karyológia parazitov rodu Diphyllobothrium: detekcia fylogeneticky významných charakteristík.

Duration: 1. 1. 2018 - 31. 12. 2021
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: RNDr. Orosová Martina PhD.
Annotation:The current project is focused on cytogenetic research of medically important zoonotic parasites of the genus Diphyllobothrium. Karyotypes will be described in selected representatives and macro- and microstructure of chromosomes will be analyzed using both classical and molecular approaches. Methods of molecular karyology will be applied for the first time in this cestodes group. Fluorescence in situ hybridization enables detection of number and location of ribosomal genes as well as genes for histones H3 and H4. The key outputs arising from this project will be new description and re-description of karyotypes, and detailed molecular cytogenetic analysis of chromosomes. The newly obtained complex cytogenetic data will be, in combination with new molecular and morphological data, used for the revision of phylogenetic relationships between tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium as well as at the level of the family Diphyllobothriidae.

Comparative cytogenetic analysis of the thorny-headed worm Acanthocephalus lucii from the industrially polluted area of Zemplín Region and the natural volcanic lake Morské Oko.

Komparatívna cytogenetická analýza háčikohlavca Acanthocephalus lucii z priemyselne znečistenej oblasti Zemplína a prírodného sopečného jazera Morské Oko.

Duration: 1. 1. 2021 - 31. 12. 2022
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: RNDr. Orosová Martina PhD.
Annotation:The project aims to study chromosomes of Acanthocephalus lucii (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from two selected research areas where one is exposed to severe mixed industrial pollution (Zemplínska Šírava water reservoir) and the other (Morské Oko) is relatively free of pollution. The detailed structure of the karyotype and individual chromosomes of A. lucii will be characterized by standard and molecular techniques of karyology. For the first time, a new methodological approach will be applied to identify and characterize repetitive DNA elements in the genome of this species (RepeatExplorer) in order to obtain suitable chromosomal markers. We expect that FISH mapping using these markers in ecologically distinct populations of A. lucii will provide original data that will allow answers to questions regarding the likely impact of environment with a high degree of anthropogenic pollution on chromosomes of the fish parasite studied.

Parasites in domestic and wild carnivores from Slovakia and Bulgaria in the era of global changes

Parazity domácich a voľne žijúcich mäsožravcov na Slovensku a v Bulharsku v období globálnych zmien

Duration: 1. 1. 2018 - 31. 12. 2021
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: MVDr. Hurníková Zuzana PhD.
Annotation:Free living carnivores are involved in maintenance and spread of several viral, bacterial and parasitic zoonotic diseases; potentially transmissible to domestic, farm and game animals, and also to humans. The project is focused at comparison of the parasite fauna composition of domestic and free living carnivores in both Bulgaria and Slovakia including parasitic agents transmissible to man. The occurrence of parasites in ecologically different areas will be collated and the host-parasite-landscape interactions studied. Molecular characteristic of parasite strains as well as the homology of isolates obtained in selected areas will provide the basis for evaluation of possible spread of parasites from south (Bulgaria) northward (Slovakia. The risk factors that advance the parasite circulation and risk areas of increased appearance of reservoirs, vectors and potential hosts with respect to spread of parasitic infections will be identified.

Transmission patterns and genetic polymorphisms of zoonotic Echinococcus tapeworms in central Europe

Transmisné cykly a genetické polymorfizmy zoonóznych pásomníc rodu Echinococcus v strednej Európe

Duration: 1. 1. 2019 - 31. 12. 2021
Program: Bilaterálne - iné
Project leader: RNDr. Šnábel Viliam CSc.
Annotation:Alveolar echinococcosis is of increasing public health concern in central Europe, as human cases appear to be increasingly frequent. The impact of landscape, host animals and genetic variability of the parasite on infection risk and pathogenicity is not yet fully understood. A specific issue will be a survey of clade composition of Echinococcus multilocularis in selected European and Russian/Siberian areas that might contribute to better understanding of its evolutionary history and how the parasite spread worldwide. Cystic echinococcosis continues to be a frequent livestock disease in southern and eastern Europe. From gained data, more effective public health policies to reduce E. granulosus s.l. transmission will be implemented, also with regard to prevent precursors to regional and global expansions associated with trade.

The place of carnivores in transmission diseases of zoonotic foci

Úloha mäsožravcov pri prenose chorôb v zoonotickom ložisku

Duration: 1. 1. 2019 - 31. 12. 2021
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: RNDr. Víchová Bronislava PhD.

Eggs ultrastructure of the basal tapeworm groups (Caryophyllidea, Diphyllobothriidea)

Ultraštruktúra vajíčok bazálnych skupín pásomníc (Caryophyllidea, Diphyllobothriidea)

Duration: 1. 1. 2018 - 31. 12. 2021
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: RNDr. Bruňanská Magdaléna DrSc.

Wild carnivores as a reservoir of zoonotic diseases in the north-eastern Poland

Voľne žijúce mäsožravce ako rezervoár zoonónych ochorení na území severovýchodného Poľska

Duration: 1. 1. 2019 - 31. 12. 2022
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: MVDr. Dvorožňáková Emília PhD.
Annotation:Wild carnivores are an important reservoir for zoonotic diseases and play a significant role in their transmission to humans. The aim of the project is to study occurrence of such zoonotic diseases as: trichinellosis, echinococcosis, toxocarosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, mycoplasmosis, and borreliosis in wild carnivores inhabiting north-eastern Poland. Partially collected material and routinely used methods will provide reliable results. It will be the first complex study showing the species - specific pattern of carnivore hosts for zoonotic diseases in north-eastern Poland.

National Projects

Alternative methods for assessing contamination rates of aquatic ecosystem using fish and their parasites

Alternatívne metódy hodnotenia miery kontaminácie vodného ekosystému s využitím rýb a ich parazitov

Duration: 1. 1. 2020 - 31. 12. 2023
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Oros Mikuláš PhD.
Annotation:Some regions of Eastern Slovakia are known for a high degree of severe polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollution. PCBs are highly toxic contaminants that persist in the environment for a long time and pose a significant risk to human and animal health. The highest levels of PCBs, exceeding the ecological and health limits, were measured in the sediments of the Zemplínska Šírava reservoir, but their further spread by its adjacent rivers is not known. The aim of the project is a comprehensive research of PCB pollution of Zemplínska Šírava and adjacent rivers using analytical methods and bioindicators, selected fish species and their parasites. An important part of the project is the research of structural, cellular and functional abnormalities (chromosomal aberrations and disorders of gametogenesis) in parasites of the contaminated ecosystem. We expect that our results provide new information on the ecological status of the studied sites, the physiological condition of fish and the risks to residents of Zemplín.

ALTREAT - Alternative parasite control of small ruminant

Alternatívne terpaie parazitóz malých prežúvavcov

Duration: 1. 7. 2019 - 30. 6. 2023
Program: APVV
Project leader: doc. MVDr. Várady Marián DrSc.
Annotation:Diseases caused by helminths of farm animals are among the most serious infectious diseases. They account for over 55% of all livestock diseases in Europe and cause significant losses in animal production figures. The spread of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites has led to the failure of therapy and the need to develop new strategies and recommendations for effective control of the antihelminthic parasite resistance. The project offers an alternative strategies to currently used chemotherapy solutions, namely the concept of herbal nutraceuticals as feed for ruminants with an effect against gastrointestinal parasitoses.

Cestodoses with zoonotic potential in Slovakia – negligible risk or serious threat?

Cestodózy so zoonóznym potenciálom na Slovensku – zanedbateľné riziko alebo závažná hrozba?

Duration: 1. 1. 2020 - 31. 12. 2023
Program: VEGA
Project leader: MVDr. Antolová Daniela PhD.
Annotation:Tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus, Hymenolepis and Taenia, important from public health point of view, occur in Slovakia. The most severe diseases, alveolar and cystic echinococcosis, are caused by larval stages of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus. Taenia saginata and T. solium infections are less frequent and less pathogenic, but T. solium can cause life-threatening neurocysticercosis. Human hymenolepiasis also occurs rarely, but high prevalence of Hymenolepis nana recorded in small rodents from pet shops, together with its zoonotic potential and recently confirmed ability of neoplastic transformation, confirmed that the risk of human health threat is not negligible. The project aims to extend the current knowledge on occurrence and genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp., Hymenolepis spp. and Taenia spp. and, through the analyses of immunological parameters in patients with different stage of echinococcosis, clarify the changes of immune response in patients and to find possibilities of its modulation.

Diagnostic challenges and forgotten parasites of domestic animals

Diagnostické výzvy a zabudnuté parazity domácich zvierat

Duration: 1. 1. 2019 - 31. 12. 2021
Program: VEGA
Project leader: doc. MVDr. Várady Marián DrSc.

FUPKOPROSP - Functional food based on goats milk and its benefit on health

Funkčné potraviny na báze kozieho mlieka a ich prospešnosť pre zdravie

Duration: 1. 8. 2018 - 31. 7. 2022
Program: APVV
Project leader: MVDr. Dvorožňáková Emília PhD.
Annotation:Functional food, can be characterized as common and/or traditional food enriched with special component; component will allott to that that food term functional meaning immunity stimulation, tracy elements addition to the body following the principal aim to have beneficial effect on health. Relating to dairy industry or agriculture, nowadays is prefering goats milk and/or products made up from it. In the framework of functional food is very popular and acceptable involving of probiotic bacteria; after their colonization in host organism, they can form ideal environment which with their metabolites or with their involving in the receptors influencing immune system can beneficially influence host organism.These bacteria can reach host organism/consumer by two ways: per os or via food. The project is focused on isolation, identification, general and technological characterization of autochtonnous lactic acid bacteria from goats milk and cheese of different Slovak producers; suitable, selected strain will be applied into product made up of goats milk in semi-processing (laboratory) conditions as well as in dairy-farming – customer of project application output condition; then the application form and effect of that one functional food will be tested using volonters (via consumption of cheese or the other products made up of goats milk). Application output will be the authochtonnous culture which could be used for technological processing of goats milk and/or products made up of it; these together with their final benefit on cunsumer health could allott that product to functional food.

Genetic analysis of selected emerging and re-emerging pathogens with zoonotic potential in animals and humans.

Genetická analýza vybraných a novo sa objavujúcich patogénov so zoonotickým potenciálom u zvierat a ľudí.

Duration: 1. 1. 2018 - 31. 12. 2021
Program: VEGA
Project leader: doc. RNDr. Stanko Michal DrSc.
Annotation:Emerging, resp. re-emerging infectious diseases are diseases caused by completely new or previously undetected pathogenic microorganisms, but also diseases which may be caused by a known pathogen which has begun to spread to new geographical areas or to a new host group. The origin and nature of these diseases determine not only climatic, environmental and social factors, but also economic, and therefore it is very difficult to predict when and where the next pathogen will be occurs. Approximately 75% of these diseases are zoonoses. The presented project deals with viral hepatitis E, microsporidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, chlamydiosis and anaplasmosis, whose common denominator is their zoonotic character and their inclusion in a group of emerging or reemerging diseases. Project detects their prevalence in a group of animals and humans, and by genotyping the species monitors their mutual transmission. The result is to determine the current epidemiological and epidemiological situation in their occurrence.

RiskPar - Risk assessment of the parasitozoonoses occurrence using multicriteria analysis approaches

Hodnotenie rizika výskytu parazitozoonóz metódami multikriteriálnej analýzy

Duration: 1. 7. 2019 - 30. 6. 2023
Program: APVV
Project leader: doc. RNDr. Papajová Ingrid PhD.

Immunomodulatory properties of probiotic enterococci and their enterocins in the antiparasitic defence of the host with experimental trichinellosis

Imunomodulačné vlastnosti probiotických enterokokov a ich enterocínov pri antiparazitárnej obrane hostiteľa s experimentálnou trichinelózou

Duration: 1. 1. 2019 - 31. 12. 2022
Program: VEGA
Project leader: MVDr. Dvorožňáková Emília PhD.
Annotation:A novel strategy utilising the therapeutic potencial of bacteriocin-producing bacterial strains Enterococcus and their enterocins will be investigated to exploit its protective effect against parasitic zoonosis – trichinellosis. The immunogenic activity of bacterial strains/bacteriocins will be examined at the levels of local and systemic, innate and acquired immunity. Direct and indirect interactions of enterocins with host immunity, such as stimulation of immune cells (lymphocytes, macrophages) and cytokine production during induction and regulation of the immune response in model parasitic infection will be studied. Links between the administration of bacteria/bacteriocins, immune effectors induction, and parasite elimination will be established. The project contribution will be strain-specific characterization of immunogenic properties of bacterial strains and their bacteriocins as promising candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic immunomodulation of the host with trichinellosis.

PCBMONITOR - Integrated monitoring and environmental risk assessment of PCBs and mercury contaminants in the Zemplín Region (Slovakia), one of the most ecologically threatened territories in Europe

Komplexný monitoring a hodnotenie environmentálnych rizík výskytu PCB a kontaminantov ortuti v oblasti Zemplína (Slovensko), jedného z najviac ekologicky ohrozených území Európy

Duration: 1. 7. 2019 - 30. 6. 2023
Program: APVV
Project leader: RNDr. Oros Mikuláš PhD.
Annotation:Environmental pollution is one of the most serious problems threatening survival and a future development of human civilization. Among pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and highly toxic heavy metals play a key role, because they accumulate and persist in the aquatic ecosystem including plants, invertebrates and animals for a long time. Even though they represent a real danger for human health, the actual dispersal and quantity of these contaminants in the environment are poorly known. Therefore, the proposed project aims to address the important questions of environmental pollution of the PCB-contaminated Zemplínska Šírava (eastern Slovakia) water reservoir, one of the worst man-made polluted spots in Europe, and its surroundings including the adjacent protected landscape of the Bodrog River basin. All major components of the polluted water reservoir and its surroundings (sediments, soil, fish, fish parasites, soil and plant parasitic nematodes and plants) will be analyzed for PCB levels and Hg concentration, using a new interdisciplinary approach, which will combine standard methods of pollutant detection with the use of bioindicators and molecular cytogenetics. It is expected that the results of this project will help to better understand the impact of environmental pollution on the aquatic life and suitability of bioindicators, especially fish parasites, in the biomonitoring of contaminants.

Molecular epidemiology and risk of spread of wildlife parasites in actual ecologic conditions of Slovakia

Molekulárna epidemiológia a riziko šírenia sa parazitov zveri v aktuálnych ekologických podmienkach Slovenska

Duration: 1. 1. 2019 - 31. 12. 2022
Program: VEGA
Project leader: MVDr. Hurníková Zuzana PhD.
Annotation:The project will focus on the mechanisms of transmission and spread of parasites in natural ecosystems in Slovakia to elucidate the circulation patterns of selected protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii and haemosporidia of the genera Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus) and helminths (Eufilaria, Eufilariella, Onchocerca, and Anoplocephalidae). By means of molecular biology methods the current geographic distribution of selected parasitic diseases will be investigated in Slovakia and in cooperation with foreign institutions also in a wider geographic context. Biological peculiarities of host-parasite relationships, influencing the circulation in model study sites and the local adaptations of the parasite genetic structure to available hosts and vectors and to external factors. Factors limiting the survival of parasites, their vectors, intermediate hosts, and reservoirs will be identified, and risk areas will be defined predicting the risk of spreading to new areas and infecting humans.

GoShEncephal - Sheep, Goats and Tick-borne Encephalitis virus

O ovciach, kozách a víruse kliešťovej encefalitídy

Duration: 1. 7. 2017 - 30. 6. 2021
Program: APVV
Project leader: RNDr. Víchová Bronislava PhD.
Annotation:The aim of the project is a comparative analysis involving sheep and goats foodborne infections. With regard to exact criteria, a representative number of farms from whole Slovakia will be selected. We will screen the milk and milk products of sheep and goats, ticks collected from direct observation of the animals as well as those collected by flagging the vegetation around the farms. Samples will be examined by highly sensitive molecular biological methods for the presence of virus . From animal blood we will evaluate the serological status of all investigated animals. Based on the evaluation of the results we will be able to see how the sheep and goats are engaged in the food-borne infections in Slovakia. In the case of virus positive samples, we will obtain very valuable information about the genetic diversity of the TBEV in our country. An important outcome of the project will be the specific methodological recommendations for farmers in terms of preventing foodborne disease.

PARIMUN - Clarification of the immunomodulatory effects of DLE (dialyzable leukocyte extract) in the therapy of mice with parasitic infections of immunosuppressive character.

Objasnenie imunomodulačných účinkov DLE (dialyzovateľný leukocytárny extrakt) pri liečbe myší s parazitárnymi infekciami imunosupresívneho charakteru

Duration: 1. 8. 2018 - 30. 6. 2022
Program: APVV
Project leader: RNDr. Hrčková Gabriela DrSc.

SOILMIC FOR - Soil microbiota in natural forest ecosystems: its response to changing biotic and abiotic factors of habitat

Pôdna mikrobiota v prírodných lesných ekosystémoch, jej odozva na meniace sa biotické a abiotické faktory habitátu

Duration: 1. 7. 2020 - 30. 6. 2024
Program: APVV
Project leader: Ing. Renčo Marek PhD.
Annotation:Soil microbiota (including microfauna) plays a key role in nutrient cycles and energy flows, regulating the supply of plant-available nutrients from the soil and hence providing essential services to the forest ecosystem. Therefore, the knowledge about the state of soil microbial and nematode community, factors influencing it and consequently ways of its management is a fundamental need not only in plant productivity, soil ecology but in ecology in general. The aim of the proposed project is to analyse and clarify the responses of soil microbiota including nematodes to variation in abiotic and biotic factors of their habitat in natural forest ecosystems at a local scale and to find out whether the responses differ at a regional and global scale. The study will be conducted at localities with different trees species (European beech and Norway spruce) in natural forest ecosystems. The following issues can be considered innovative: (i) a complex evaluation of relationships in the system plant-soil-soil microbiota, (ii) study of relationships between two groups of soil biota (soil microorganisms and nematodes), (iii) synthesis of results and data on soil microorganisms from different sites in Slovakia and abroad, which allows a certain degree of generalisation. Understanding the responses of soil microbiota to variability in vegetation and abiotic factors is vitally important for the suggestions and recommendations regarding soil protection and biodiversity conservation in relation to climate change

Direct and indirect impact of invasive plant species on soil micro and mesofauna biodiversity

Priamy a nepriamy vplyv inváznych druhov rastlín na biodiverzitu pôdnej mikro a mezofauny

Duration: 1. 1. 2020 - 31. 12. 2023
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Renčo Marek PhD.
Annotation:In our time, due to global market and goods transportation, spread of the invasive plant species (IPs) has limitless opportunities across the globe. Those species are able quickly occupy new areas; create and form completely new types of vegetation. However, their impact on soil organisms has been studied so far very little. The proposed project focuses on the basic issues about soil and plant ecology with emphasis on species diversity and structure of soil nematode communities, functional diversity of microorganisms, structure of vegetation and their interactions in natural ecosystems affected by invasion of non-native invasive plant species. Depending on the type of invasive plant project will analyse the impact of invasion on soil organisms, soil properties, and organic matter supply in soil. We will evaluate soil environment of uninvaded and invaded ecosystems where soil nematodes and microorganisms will be used as indicators. Data from natural habitats will be verified in experimental conditions.

Relictual forms of arthropods (Arthropoda) in the Western Carpathians – morphology, ecology and phylogeny

Reliktné formy článkonožcov (Arthropoda) v Západných Karpatoch – morfológia, ekológia a fylogenéza

Duration: 1. 1. 2018 - 31. 12. 2021
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Miklisová Dana PhD.
Annotation:During the last decades the wide spectrum of unique relictual forms of arthropods in territory of the Western Carpathians has been revealed. Most of them have remained taxonomically unresolved and their ecology is poorly undestood, obligate cave forms including. The aim of the project is to study detailed morphology of these relicts assigned to Palpigradi, Acari, Amphipoda, Diplopoda, Collembola and Lepidoptera. Futhermore, the project aims to bring the data on their ecology by a detailed populational study. Phylogenetic approach based on analysis of two molecular markers will be applied for the selected taxa, specifically the family Attemsiidae (Diplopoda), the genera Pseudosinella and Pygmarrhopalites (Collembola), and relictual populations of the selected alpine and steppe species of Lepidoptera. The project is based on the complex methodology, i.e. combination of the morphology and ecology study of relictual arthropod populations with molecular analyses in reconstruction of the phylogenetic lineages.

Projects total: 25