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Information Page of SAS Organisation

Project

Institute of Hydrology

International Projects

WATSON - Water isotopes in the critical zone: from groundwater recharge to plant transpiration

Izotopy vody v kritickej zóne: od dopĺňania zásob podzemnej vody po transpiráciu rastlín

Duration: 24. 9. 2020 - 23. 9. 2024
Program: COST
Project leader: RNDr. Holko Ladislav PhD.
Annotation:Understanding water exchange within the critical zone, i.e.the dynamic skin of the Earth that extends from vegetation canopy to groundwater, is vital for addressing key environmental problems linked to the sustainable management of water resources. The main aim of WATSON is to collect, integrate, and synthesize current interdisciplinary scientific knowledge on the partitioning and mixing of water in the critical zone taking advantage of the unique tracing capability of water isotopes. These efforts will allow going beyond the current fragmented knowledge providing a novel conceptual framework on the interactions between groundwater recharge, soil water storage, and vegetation transpiration useful for water resources management across a variety of climatic settings. The Action activities are based on a network of early career and senior scientists from different complementary disciplines who are experts in the use of water isotopes, and stakeholders from governmental agencies and private companies from 19 COST countries and one Near Neighbour Country. The ultimate goal of the network is to build capacity in the use of robust isotope approaches for water resource management.

FIRElinks - Fire in the Earth System: Science & Society

Požiar v systéme Zeme: veda a spoločnosť

Duration: 24. 4. 2019 - 23. 4. 2023
Program: COST
Project leader: Ing. Lichner Ľubomír DrSc.
Annotation:FIRElinks will develop an EU-spanning network of scientists and practitioners involved in vegetation fire research and management with different backgrounds: fire dynamics, fire effects on soil, water and vegetation, and fire risk management. It will connect communities from different scientific and geographic backgrounds, allowing the discussion of different experiences and the emergence of new approaches to fire research. The objective of FIRElinks is to power synergic collaborations between European research groups and stakeholders with the objective to synthesise the existing knowledge and expertise, and to define a concerted research agenda which promotes an integrated approach to create fireresilient landscapes, taking into account biological, biochemical and-physical, but also socio-economic, perception and policy constraints. This is an urgent societal need due to expected further intensification and geographical spreading of wildfire regimes under climate change.
Project web page:https://www.cost.eu/actions/CA18135/

SoilWater - Soil Eco-Technology to Recover Water Storage in disturbed Forests

Pôdna ekotechnológia obnovujúca zásobu vody v lesoch narušených ľudskou činnosťou

Duration: 1. 4. 2020 - 31. 3. 2023
Program: ERANET
Project leader: Ing. Šurda Peter PhD.

WATSIM - Water temperature simulation during summer low flow conditions in the Danube basin

Simulácia teploty vody v tokoch v povodí rieky Dunaj počas letných nízkych prietokov

Duration: 1. 1. 2020 - 31. 12. 2023
Program: UNESCO
Project leader: RNDr. Pekárová Pavla DrSc.
Annotation:The proposed project is oriented on long-term variability and long-term trends of water temperature of selected rivers in different regions of Danube basin (high mountains, highlands, lowlands) and along the Danube River. Multiple regression technique will be used for analysis of relations between water temperature and influencing factors (low and high discharge conditions, increasing atmospheric temperature, anthropogenic activity in basin, etc.). The multiregresion simulation and stochastic forecasting models (Box Jenkins models, ARIMA, SARIMA) of water temperature will be developed for selected rivers. These models will be used for simulation of the water temperature of selected rivers according to different discharge, and air temperature scenarios. One of the expected results is the scientific base for method of water quality classification according the water temperature of water bodies in Danube basin for implementation of WFD 2000/60/EC. The results of the project will be summarized in common monograph of the project team.

National Projects

BCsoil - Biochar as a soil additive for sustainable agriculture in conditions of climate change

Biouhlie ako pôdne aditívum pre trvaloudržateľné poľnohospodárstvo v podmienkach klimatickej zmeny

Duration: 1. 7. 2022 - 30. 6. 2026
Program: APVV
Project leader: Ing. Šurda Peter PhD.
Annotation:To reach effective and sustainable soil management, we need to set up correct priorities in evaluating soil properties understand the causes of decreasing or low soil fertility and establish the strategies for soil fertility improvements. The Terra Preta de Índio phenomenon has become the main inspiration of many scientists during the last two decades or so, with the main focus of their research on the role of biochar in the amelioration of soil properties and the question whether the effect observed in Amazonia can be replicated in other areas of the world. The actuality of the submitted project consists in shifting the boundaries of knowledge about the long-term impact of biochar application to soil in the Slovak Republic. Biochar is currently part of the new European Fertilizer Directive (Annex A). However, such legislation is missing in Slovakia, as well as continuous long-term research of its application to soil. The main aim of this project is a complex long-term research of the biochar application to soil at the conditions of a field experiment (including also regional modeling studies) and subsequently the transfer of results into practice through two cooperating companies. The research team of the proposed project has a field experiment where the effect of biochar (meeting all environmental standards of European Biochar Certificate-EBC) on soil is studied at field site Malanta (Nitra). This experiment was established in 2014 and is still ongoing, therefore when containing, it will represent a character of long-term research. These results will be then the basis for the production of biochar (EBC) and substrates containing biochar for the partner companies. Subsequently, biochar (and substrates) produced by these companies will be tested by the project team at the field conditions. The final application result of the project partners (companies) will be the subsequent introduction of certified biochar (and substrates) on the market in Slovakia.

Comprehensive analysis of the quantity and quality of water regime development in streams and their mutual dependence in selected Slovak basins

Komplexná analýza vývoja režimu kvantity a kvality vody v tokoch a ich vzájomného vzťahu vo vybraných povodiach Slovenska

Duration: 1. 1. 2023 - 31. 12. 2026
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Bačová Mitková Veronika PhD.
Annotation:Climate change and anthropogenic activity affect the components of the hydrological regime of the stream with a possible negative impact on water quantity and quality. It is necessary to know and analyse changes and the mutual dependence of the quantitative characteristics and water quality indicators. This knowledge enables prevention and response to a crisis phenomenon, which helps quickly and correctly eliminate its consequences. The presented project aims to provide scientific data for evaluating the impact of possible changes in the runoff regime and water quality in streams of selected Slovak basins with respect to extreme hydrological situations. We will seek answers related to the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activity on quantitative and qualitative conditions and their consequences by using appropriate scientific and mathematical methods. These can provide a base for the mitigation of hydrological extremes. The archival data and data from our experimental measurements will be used.

CONTROL - Connectivity and flood runoff dynamics in headwater catchments of Slovakia

Konektivita a dynamika tvorby povodňového odtoku vo vrcholových povodiach Slovenska

Duration: 1. 7. 2020 - 30. 6. 2024
Program: APVV
Project leader: RNDr. Holko Ladislav PhD.
Annotation:Hydrological connectivity of subsurface and surface storages or different catchment elements within a landscape is a crucial factor in the complex process of flood flow generation on hillslopes. The project aims to develop modelling systems, which respects observed connectivity patterns based on experimental monitoring of runoff generation in pilot headwater catchments in four typical forested and agricultural hydrological environments. Instead of building complex representations of structural connectivity elements in 3D as in conventional distributed models, innovative hybrid distributed conceptual modelling representations of the governing processes and controls will be sought. Typical patterns of the observed dynamics of processes will be conceptually represented in a two-level distributed modelling framework. At the first level of spatial variability, based on the monitored processes, observed source areas and connectivity patterns, the hydrological response unit (HRU) concept will be used with spatially homogeneous parameterization, which will be allowed to change in time. To respect the spatial variability of state of the catchment, within these units, grid-based conceptual models will be driven by spatially distributed inputs.

KVANPROC - Quantification of Interaction Processes in Hydrological Cycle in Lowland area conditions

Kvantifikácia interakčných procesov v hydrologickom cykle v podmienkach nížinného územia

Duration: 1. 1. 2020 - 31. 12. 2023
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Gomboš Milan CSc.
Annotation:From a systemic point of view, the hydrological cycle is understood as a rugged unit composed of several parts between which there are bonds. This system consists of an open physical system that can be divided into atmosphere (A) - plant cover (PC) - unsaturated zone (UZ) - groundwater (GW). Interaction processes take place between individual subsystems. The size and intensity of interactions depend on the geographic, geophysical and climatic conditions of the area. The fundamental importance of knowledge of the interaction processes is, above all, that transport of mass, energy and biomass are realized there. It is a fundamental basis for adaptation arrangements. The aim of the project is to quantify interaction processes in various time scales. Temporal development and mutual links along the vertical of the systém will be examined. The research will be carried out in the environment of the East Slovak Lowland (ESL). Lysimetric research, numerical simulation and monitoring methods will be applied.

Prediction of a point pollution source position in a watercourse network – a hydrodynamic approach

Predikcia miesta zdroja bodového znečistenia v sieti vodných tokov – hydrodynamický prístup

Duration: 1. 1. 2020 - 31. 12. 2023
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Velísková Yvetta PhD.
Annotation:The aim of the project is to design and develop a methodology and computational tool for predicting the position of point pollution source in the watercourse network based on the pollutant concentration time course in the monitored watercourse profile (inverse task). This task will be solved in real water flow conditions with free surface flow and will be generally applicable in a branched network, i.e. in a river, canal or sewer network. The practical solution of the given inverse task can be helpful in water management practice, i.e. it helps to identify sources of illegal discharges of hazardous substances (or unannounced accidents). The project will also include optimization of computational procedures, sensitivity analysis and verification of results of pollution source locality prediction based on experimental measurements in real watercourse network conditions, canal or sewer networks.

DETECTIVES - Regional detection, attribution and projection of impacts of climate variability and climate change on runoff regimes in Slovakia

Regionálna detekcia, atribúcia a projekcia dopadov variability klímy a klimatickej zmeny na režim odtoku na Slovensku

Duration: 1. 7. 2021 - 30. 6. 2025
Program: APVV
Project leader: RNDr. Pekárová Pavla DrSc.
Annotation:Rich physiographic conditions in Slovakia result in regionally different runoff regimes driven by climate variability and impacted by climatic and socioeconomic changes in the recent past. The first scientific goal of project is therefore to develop and apply a set of approaches for the detection and attribution changes in the past hydrological regime with annual, monthly and daily temporal resolution. Detection will be based on new methods going beyond standard statistics (trend and breakpoint analysis, correlation analysis, etc.) using approaches such as nonlinear time series models and copula function based dependence structures. Attribution with the use of rainfall runoff modelling will attempt to distinguish anthropogenic factors (as land-use change) and signals of a changing climate. Recent climate change projections in Slovakia do not allow for a comprehensive assessment of impacts on the water regime. The second goal is to develop new projections of future climate and hydrology including uncertainty assessment with the aim to gain new insights into the uncertainties of future regime changes in hydrometeorological processes in Slovakia. Comparison of regime changes from the instrumental period and the projections will serve adaptation measures in water management.
Project web page:pavla.pekarova.sk

Management of crisis situations in water supply with respect to climate change

Riešenie krízových situácií v zásobovaní vodou s ohľadom na klimatické zmeny

Duration: 1. 7. 2019 - 30. 6. 2023
Program: APVV
Project leader: Ing. Velísková Yvetta PhD.
Annotation:Within the project will be verified possibilities of application of new filtration materials their possible combinations for provide the healthy safe drinking water even during short-term degradation of quality of surface water, which is caused particularly during storm rainfall and melting snow in spring time, the efficiency of multilayer filtration with the membrane micro or ultra filtration module will be compared, economically and technically evaluated the results of experiments to work out a method for design of multimaterial filtration and membrane technology in water treatment technology line on the basis of water quality and operating conditions of the distribution network. Another objective of the project is to monitor the changes in surface water quality at different seasons and different hydrological conditions as well as the impact of climate change on water quality and technological processes of water treatment.

Impact of biochar application on hydro-physical characteristics of different soil types

Vplyv aplikácie biouhlia na hydrofyzikálne parametre rôznych druhov pôd

Duration: 1. 1. 2021 - 31. 12. 2023
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Vitková Justína PhD.
Annotation:The project is focused on biochars application into the various soil types and changes in soil hydro-physical characteristics will be measured. Our research will be carried out mainly in laboratory conditions, because before the application the biochar into the soil in field conditions, the expected properties of biochar is necessary to determine. Foreign scientific studies show that the amount of applied biochar and its particle size significantly affect its properties in soil. Because of that we will focus on two application doses and three different biochar particle sizes in this project. The hydrophobicity of biochar will be determined and its impact on soil properties. Sorption of nitrates and phosphates in soil after biochar amendment will be determined as well. In field conditions, we will continue in soil moisture and temperature monitoring after biochar application, which we have been performing since 2015 and our results quantify the impact of biochar on soil moisture during different crops growing.

Impact of climate change on rainfall–runoff relationships

Vplyv klimatickej zmeny na zrážkovo–odtokové vzťahy

Duration: 1. 1. 2020 - 31. 12. 2023
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Šurda Peter PhD.
Annotation:Combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land use are leading to a change in global climate. Climate models project increases in hot extremes in most inhabited regions, heavy precipitation in several regions, and the probability of drought and precipitation deficits in some regions. In the conditions of Slovakia, several areas sensitive to water erosion, will suffer with the expected effects of sudden and intense storms. Drought events, which frequently will coincide with heat waves, are likely to become increasingly important for the development and dynamics of soil water repellency. Another important feature, which is related to climate change and likely to be promoted by drought and heat waves, is the increasing risk of wildfires. In the present project, we will focus on the analysis of changes in surface runoff / water erosion caused by altered parameters (expected elevated values) of design rains, expected effects of forest fires and widespread water repellency.

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Vplyv ohrevu na hydrofyzikálne a chemické vlastnosti lesnej pôdy

Duration: 1. 1. 2023 - 31. 12. 2026
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Zvala Anton PhD.

Effect of vegetation and its secondary succession on soil hydrological processes

Vplyv vegetácie a jej sekundárnej sukcesie na hydrologické procesy v pôde

Duration: 1. 1. 2020 - 31. 12. 2023
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Lichner Ľubomír DrSc.
Annotation:Vegetation can influence soil hydrology in several ways. Goal of the project proposed is estimation of the relationships between the hydrophysical parameters (hydraulic conductivity, ethanol and water sorptivity), soil water repellency parameters (water drop penetration time, water repellency cessation time, repellency index and modified repellency index), runoff intensity during irrigation experiments, and duration of secondary succession at the burned sites and abandoned fields.

Projects total: 15