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Institute: Institute of Measurement Science

Analysis of causal relationships in complex systems with an emphasis on biomedical applications
Analýza kauzálnych vzťahov v zložitých systémoch s dôrazom na biomedicínske aplikácie
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Krakovská Anna CSc.
Annotation:The project is focused on the analysis of causal relationships in complex systems, with particular applications in the field of biomedicine. Its main task is to verify the practical applicability of recently proposed methods, and to propose new algorithms to detect the presence and direction of the causal links (in the sense of Granger's definition). Existing, often fundamentally different approaches to detect causality will be analysed, tested on computer-generated systems and modified. The resulting methodology will be used for the analysis of real systems. The main application area is functional brain connectivity, detected in different contexts from EEG signals and their inverse cortical mapping. Applications will also concern other types of physiological signals and experimental time series.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

Discrete and continuous probabilistic models and their applications
Diskrétne a spojité pravdepodobnostné modely a ich aplikácie
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Doc. RNDr. Witkovský Viktor CSc.
Annotation:The project examines properties of discrete and continuous distributions, focusing on the following three objectives: (i) theoretical analysis of properties of discrete and continuous distributions; investigation of links between the probability distributions; creation of distribution families; development of new algorithms for random number generators for non-standard discrete and continuous distributions; (ii) development of a pilot version of R toolbox for statistical goodness-of-fit testing for selected discrete and continuous distributions; creating a pilot version of the "Internet Encyclopedia" of discrete and continuous distributions; (iii) applications of discrete and continuous distributions to mathematical modeling in metrology, linguistics, insurance and demographics.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

Physical non-destructive methods for complex testing and analysis of cultural heritage artefacts.
Fyzikálne nedeštruktívne metódy pre komplexné testovanie a analýzu artefaktov kultúrneho dedičstva.
Program: SRDA
Project leader: RNDr. Hain Miroslav PhD.
Annotation:The project deals with the use of the state of the art non-destructive physical methods and devices for analyzing and testing of objects of tangible cultural heritage. Among the comprehensive research methods the X-ray microtomography, X-ray microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, ultraviolet fluorescence, infrared reflectography, FTIR spectroscopy, UV, VIS, NIR spectroscopy and active infrared thermography will be used. The project aims to achieve a synergistic effect when information about the artefact derived from different physical measurement methods and subsequently processed and evaluated together will provide qualitatively new comprehensive information on the historical artefact under study.
Duration: 1.7.2015 - 30.6.2019

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Meracie a zobrazovacie metódy na báze magnetickej rezonancie pre materiálový a biomedicínsky výskum
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Andris Peter PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2019

Measurement of biological response to weak low-frequency electromagnetic fields
Meranie biologickej odozvy slabých nízkofrekvenčných elektromagnetických polí
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Teplan Michal PhD.
Annotation:Research topic is based on the perspective of electromagnetic (EM) principles of living system operation. The overall objective of the research is to expand knowledge of the impact of weak external low frequency EM fields on functioning of selected biological objects. The main aim of the research is to design a new experimental approach enabling efficient scanning through EM fields parameters, while searching for specific resonance response of investigated biosystem. Methods based on the impedance spectroscopy will be developed in order to determine the response in a form of shifted growth rate of cell cultures in an aqueous medium. The morphology and kinetics of the cells will be studied by image analysis obtained from a video-microscopy. The results will be analyzed for their possible applications in emergent problems of contemporary society.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

Modeling of cardiac electrical field for the study of manifestation of funtional and structural changes in myocardium in measured ECG signals
Modelovanie elektrického poľa srdca na výskum prejavov funkčných a štrukturálnych zmien myokardu v meraných EKG signáloch
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Švehlíková Jana PhD.
Annotation:The aim of the project is to gain new knowledge about the relation between the electrical activation of the ventricular myocardium and the surface electrocardiogram that can be obtained by a multichannel measurement. The results will be a part of the evidence being prepared by the International Working Group on ECG Diagnostics of the Left Ventricular Hypertrophy for principal change of the diagnostic paradigm. The model of heart ventricles created in previous VEGA projects will be extended and possibilities to change the velocity of propagation of the activation wavefront and the model geometry, and anisotropic properties of the activation wavefront propagation will be added. The model will be implemented in software with graphical user interface. Besides its usage in the research of the impact of changes in the myocardium on the measured ECG signals, it will be available also as a didactic tool. The model will be used also in inverse problem solution using dipole generators or probabilistic models.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

Noninvasive localization of ectopic arrhythmias of heart ventricles using ECG mapping and its use for causal therapy
Neinvazívna lokalizácia ektopických arytmií srdcových komôr pomocou EKG mapovania a jej využitie pre účely kauzálnej liečby
Program: SRDA
Project leader: Doc. Ing. Tyšler Milan CSc.
Annotation:Ventricular arrhythmias caused by conduction disturbances or structural changes in the myocardium are one of the causes that can lead to decreased pumping function and symptoms of failing heart. If the pharmacological treatment does not lead to desired effect, currently the second option is a therapeutic intervention based on application of an stimulating electrode or catheter ablation of the arrhythmogenic substrate. In both cases exact localization of the site of abnormal activation is necessary. In classic therapeutic practice, this place is searched during the intervention using an intracardial catheter under fluoroscopic control or by endocardial electroanatomic mapping. With increasing accessibility of tomographic examinations, currently also techniques how to determine the site of intervention noninvasively before the treatment are searched. Methods of so called electrocardiographic imaging seem promising that combine data from surface ECG measurement with tomographic data and use a mathematical model to reconstruct the myocardium activation sequence. General solution of this problem currently does not exist but successful localizations in specific pathological cases were published. The main objective of the submitted project is design, optimization and verification of a measuring method for noninvasive localization of one or two small areas with abnormal ventricular activation. The method is based on multichannel measurement of surface ECG and an individual 3D model of the patient chest obtained from tomographic imaging. In contrast to other published methods, the calculation of the site of the pathological substrate is based on a mathematical model of the electrical field generated by one or two local sources in the heart. The proposed method seems enough accurate and robust for the given goal. Noninvasive localization of the of the target area enables better intervention planning, shortening of the intervention time and decrease of the patient load.
Duration: 1.7.2015 - 30.6.2018

Advanced statistical and computational methods for measurement and metrology
Pokročilé štatistické a výpočtové metódy pre meranie a metrológiu
Program: SRDA
Project leader: Doc. RNDr. Witkovský Viktor CSc.
Annotation:The aim of the project is to develop mathematical and statistical methods and algorithms for evaluation of the measurement results with emphasis on the development of models and methods for multivariate calibration of measuring devices and methods and algorithms for determining the uncertainties in measurement by deriving the exact resp. approximate probability distributions of the measurement results. Research will focus primarily on the following areas: • Theoretical research on mathematical and statistical models and methods for multivariate calibration; • Development of calibration theory of the sensors and transducers, uncertainty determination in calibration of sensor under the normally distributed measurement errors as well as under the alternative probability distributions of measurement errors, development of procedures for calibration and measurement evaluation useful in laboratory work, evaluation of sensor calibration in the thermal and mechanical quantities with continuous scale (pressure transmitter, thermocouple temperature sensors , resistance thermometers, etc.), and determination of the calibration values of the physico-chemical parameters by using the certified reference materials; • Development of methods and algorithms to determine the exact resp. approximate probability distribution of measurement results by combining and inverting the characteristic functions of the probability distributions of the input variables and characterizing uncertainty in metrology. The application of the mathematical, statistical, and computational methods for the measurement science and metrology is high on the agenda, with a significant impact on the international scientific as well as industrial cooperation and economic growth in developed countries. It is in good agreement with the intentions of the strategy for research and development, approved by the Slovak government (SK RIS3).
Duration: 1.7.2016 - 30.6.2020

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Vplyv ultra malých superparamagnetických nanočastíc železa na kardiovaskulárny systém potkana v podmienkach vysokého krvného tlaku
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Maňka Ján CSc.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Enhancing cognition and motor rehabilitation using mixed reality
Vylepšovanie kognície a motorickej rehabilitácie s využitím zmiešanej reality
Program: SRDA
Project leader: Ing. Mgr. Rosipal Roman PhD.
Annotation:Technological advancements based on mixed reality (MR) offer various challenges for research and medical treatment. The project focuses on two objectives related to healthy subjects and hemiparetic patients after stroke. First, we will test the hypothesis whether cognitive training using appropriately designed MR environment will enhance perceptual and cognitive performance in healthy subjects. This will be tested by computerized psychological experiments as well as by measuring event-related potentials or ERPs. Second, we will test the hypothesis whether experience with training in MR (in combination with motor-imagery based brain-computer interface developed by us) will enhance oscillatory sensory-motor rhythms. This will be tested by measuring subject’s EEG activity before and after each training session, clinical testing, as well as by the questionnaires aiming to learn about human factors including mental fatigue, motivation, irritation or sleepiness due to training. In both objectives, we will design and implement a set of testing procedures, carry out a battery of dedicated experiments, and critically evaluate the results with the goal to validate MR designs.
Duration: 1.7.2017 - 30.6.2021

Research of comparative imaging methods based on magnetic resonance for diagnostics of neurological and musculoskeletal diseases
Výskum komparatívnych zobrazovacích metód na báze magnetickej rezonancie na diagnostiku neurologických a muskuloskeletálnych ochorení
Program: SRDA
Project leader: Prof. Ing. Frollo Ivan DrSc.
Annotation:Intense development of the imaging methods based on magnetic resonance using up-to-date technical equipment - NMR tomographs gives extraordinary chance to the basic research aspects of this scientific orientation. Modern MR open scanners with ability to develop own sequences allow for wide basic research of imaging,measurement and mapping of the specific physical quantities and object for improvement of biomedical and material research with clinical applications. The main goal of this project proposal will be the design of progressive comparative MRI imaging methods using the whole range of MRI scanners (0.1, 0.2, 4.7 to 7 Tesla) with special focus on: - theoretical and experimental investigation of scanning approaches measurement and mapping of specific physical quantities of the organic and synthetic materials, - in-vivo an in-vitro imaging of ferritin at different MR scanners, sequence development, data processing and investigation of the ferritin influence on MR image. Imaging of the tissues (brain, liver) and protocol standardization for imaging of ferritin in the clinical practice, - methods of cartilage and meniscus imaging - the early diagnostics of connective tissue depletion, relaxation times mapping for collagen structure assessment, - monitoring of particle deposition as drug carriers to target tissues in the form of superparamagnetic material. The investigation of the possible targeting using gradient magnetic fields, - investigation of artefacts with various sequences, testing of the spectral properties of vibrations and noise generated by gradients activity; development, application and testing algorithms for their effect compensation. Additionally, the add on value will be the non-invasive nature of all methods which will be beneficial for early diagnostics of pathological processes in medical research and also in clinical practice.
Duration: 1.7.2016 - 30.6.2019

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Výskum možností a rozvoj SQUID magnetometrie pre vybrané aplikácie v biomedicíne a materiálovom výskume
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Maňka Ján CSc.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

The total number of projects: 12