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Institute of Hydrology

International projects

EUROFRIEND - EUROFRIEND - Flow Regimes from International Experimental and Network Data
EUROFRIEND - Režim odtoku z medzinárodných experimentálnych a sieťových údajov
Program: UNESCO
Project leader: RNDr. Miklánek Pavol CSc.
Annotation:The FRIEND programme is an international research programme that helps to set up regional networks for analyzing hydrological data. It aims to develop better understanding of hydrological variability and similarity across time and space, through the mutual exchange of data, knowledge and techniques at the regional level. The advanced knowledge of hydrological processes and flow regimes gained through FRIEND helps to improve methods applicable in water resources planning and management. FRIEND is a cross-cutting programme that interacts with all five core IHP-VII themes. A generic overarching scientific objective has been to improve the understanding of the similarity and hydrological variability across different regions of the world, and to share models and techniques between countries, organizations and researchers. The current research covers a diverse range of topics including low flows, floods, variability of regimes, rainfall/runoff modelling, processes of stream flow generation, sediment transport, snow and glacier melt, climate change and variability and its uncertainties, and land-use impacts.
Project web page:http://www.euro-friend.de/servlet/is/7415/index.html
Duration: 1.1.2014 - 31.12.2021

ERB - European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins - ERB
Európska sieť experimentálnych a reprezentatívnych povodí
Program: UNESCO
Project leader: RNDr. Holko Ladislav PhD.
Annotation:The Euromediterranean Network of Experimental and Representative Basins (ERB) is an open association of 20 European countries operating and managing well instrumented experimental and representative basins for hydrological and environmental research on a long term basis. The ERB network promotes the exchange of basin information and the cooperation in international programs as FRIEND, HELP and PUB. Information is disseminated through Newsletters. The Steering Committee of ERB consists of National Correspondents nominated by the UNESCO-IHP National Committees. ERB was established in 1986 and has organised twelve biennial conferences since its beginning. The main objectives are : • To increase relationships between members, research teams, universities and basin managers, through exchanges of hydrological information, data, research methods, models and to organise visits and biennial conferences; • To enable joint studies of common interest • To make available and exchange data between research groups. • To harmonize methods of data collection and processing. Scientific topics and conferences: Despite the large diversity of hydrological problems in our countries there appears always a convergence of hydrological topics of common interest in small basin research to formulate themes of our conferences to which scientists of all member countries can contribute. Examples are: hydrological monitoring, runoff generation, hydrological and environmental modelling, biogeochemical processes, extremes, uncertainties in data and model concepts, effects of natural and man-made changes, erosion, sedimentation, hillslope processes, etc. The organizing country may also select topics of more national or regional interest. The biennial conferences are very important occasions to present and discuss research and to exchange experiences. Especially young scientists can benefit from these meetings by presenting their (PhD) research, discussing their ideas and exchange data to test their hypotheses and model concepts.
Project web page:http://erb-network.simdif.com/
Duration: 1.1.2013 - 31.12.2021

Harmosnow - A European network for a harmonized monitoring of snow for the benefit of climate change scenarios, hydrology and numerical weather prediction
Európska sieť pre harmonizovaný monitoring snehu pre klimatické scenáre, hydrológiu a numerické predpovede počasia
Program: COST
Project leader: RNDr. Holko Ladislav PhD.
Annotation:Aim of the Action The aim of action is to enhance the capability of the research community and operational services to provide and exploit quality-assured and comparable regional and global observation-based data on the variability of the state and extent of snow. Overall objectives and benefits are: - Establish a European-wide science network on snow measurements for their optimum use and applications benefitting on interactions across disciplines and expertise. - Assess and harmonise practices, standards and retrieval algorithms applied to ground, air- and space-borne snow measurements => Foster their acceptance by key snow network operators at the international level. - Develop a rationale and long term strategy for snow measurements, their dissemination and archiving. - Advance snow data assimilation in European NWP and hydrological models and show its benefit for relevant applications. - Establish a validation strategy for climate, NWP and hydrological models against snow observations and foster its implementation within the European modelling communities. - Training of a new generation of scientists on snow science and measuring techniques with a broader and more holistic perspective linked with the various applications.
Project web page:http://www.harmosnow.eu/
Duration: 10.11.2014 - 9.11.2018

Evaluation of surface soil moisture from satellite and ground-based measurements
Hodnotenie vlhkosti povrchu pôdy pomocou satelitných a pozemných meraní
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: Ing. Vitková Justína PhD.
Annotation:Soil moisture together with soil and vegetation characteristics, plays an important role in exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmospheric boundary layer. Accurate knowledge of current and future spatial and temporal variation in soil moisture is not well known, nor easy to measure or predict. Knowledge of soil moisture in surface and root zone is critical for achieving sustainable land and water management. Research concern the proofs of the climate change issues related to evaluation of water storage in soil from ground and SMOS (Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity) satellite measurements, in area of 3 Transboundary Biosphere Reserves situated both in Poland and Slovakia. Studies conducted in the years 2013-2015, we want to continue for another period 2016-2018. The focus is on validating soil moisture, and classifying the vegetation cover towards the water content bound to the canopy. In order to improve our understanding of how the management and land use modify the water and thermal processes the use of modelling is required. In this research project we plan to use SMOS and ground data for prediction of topsoil water distribution in Poland and Slovak territory.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

IHP-VIII Danube - IHP-VIII Regional cooperation of the Danube countries
IHP-VIII Regionálna spolupráca podunajských krajín
Program: UNESCO
Project leader: RNDr. Miklánek Pavol CSc.
Annotation:In 1971, the hydrologists of 8 Danube Countries launched on a voluntary basis a regional hydrological cooperation aiming to produce consistent hydrological information about the whole Danube Catchment with an area of 817,000 km². Since 1987, this cooperation has been carried out in the framework of the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) of UNESCO, so far under the coordination of the IHP National Committees of Germany, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary. The cooperation of the Danube countries within framework of the IHP of UNESCO is based on the one hand on project work and on the other on regular conferences. The aim of the conferences is to serve as a forum for discussion and exchange of views among the specialists involved.
Project web page:http://www.unesco.org/new/en/venice/natural-sciences/water/danube-cooperation/
Duration: 1.1.2014 - 31.12.2021

IMPACT - Vplyv globálnej klimatickej zmeny na vodné zdroje na Ukrajine odhadnutej pomocou zmien prietoku v riekach a zložkami odtoku
Impacts of global climate changes on water resources in Ukraine estimated by variability of river discharges and hydrograph components
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: RNDr. Pekárová Pavla DrSc.
Annotation:Surface water is a dominant resource for water supply in Ukraine. 85% of water supply comes from the rivers and water reservoirs. Global climate changes resulted in an increase of air temperature in the country. The biggest change is observed in the cold period. In certain years, the average temperature of the cold period is above zero. Although the mean annual precipitation did not change, a decrease in the winter period and an increase in the autumn are observed. Changed air temperature and precipitation patterns result in the decrease of river discharge during spring maxima and its increase during previously low flow periods. Changes in water chemistry were observed as well. Uneven distribution of water resources over Ukraine is combined with shortage of water in regions which are most populated and economically most important. Bad water infrastructure, insufficient water treatment, formerly intensive agriculture and climate change can further deteriorate poor river water quality. The project will consist of two workpackages. In the first one, the analysis of river discharges from selected rivers in Ukraine will be conducted. The results will contribute to better understanding of the variability of river discharges. Second package will focus on hydrographs components. Better understanding of hydrograph components could help explain observed changes in water chemistry and estimate its further development under changed climate.
Duration: 1.4.2017 - 31.12.2019

DanubeFlood - Flood regime of rivers in the Danube river basin
Režim povodní v povodí rieky Dunaj
Program: UNESCO
Project leader: RNDr. Pekárová Pavla DrSc.
Annotation:The territory of the Danube River Basin is one the most flood-endangered regions in Europe. Therefore there is a strong need to have complete and exhausting information on the flood regime in order to be able to generalize such information on the basis of long-term observations from the whole Danube territory. Flood data from more than 50 stations will be processed to analyse the mean daily discharge rates variability (and annual peaks Qmax as well), from the period 1901–2005 (1876–2006, and more). Further, possible relationships between the annual discharge characteristics of the Danube River and the world climate phenomena (NAO, AO, QBO) will be examined. This information can be used for water management and design of flood control structures and for improvement of the methodological base of institutions and agencies responsible for flood warnings.
Project web page:www.ih.sav.sk/danubeflood
Duration: 1.7.2007 - 31.10.2018

The system of porous media parameters evaluation by EIS method in wide spectrum of application
The system of porous media parameters evaluation by EIS method in wide spectrum of application
Program: EUREKA
Project leader: Ing. Kandra Branislav PhD.
Duration: 1.11.2012 - 31.12.2017

SLUCH - Effect of biochar and dairy sewage sludge application on hydrophysical and mechanical properties of agricultural soils
Vplyv aplikácie biouhlia a mliekarenského čistiarenského kalu na hydrofyzikálne a mechanické vlastnosti poľnohospodárskych pôd
Program: Medzivládna dohoda
Project leader: Ing. Šurda Peter PhD.
Annotation:Recently, there has been much scientific interest in the different soil amendments as application of biochar, a carbon-rich solid material, or diary sewage sludge, mainly due to its potential promising characteristics in relation to soil conditioning. However, conclusive evidence on alteration of soil properties, processes and functions was not completed yet. Following research project will evaluate in laboratory conditions the extent and implications of biochar and diary sewage sludge application on selected soil physical characteristics, which determine hydrophysical and mechanical characteristics of agricultural soil.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 29.12.2017

DIET - Influence of biophysical and environmental factors on deviations between measured and calculated evapotranspiration
Vplyv biofyzikálnych a environmentálnych faktorov na rozdiely medzi nameranými a vypočítanými úhrnmi evapotranspirácie
Program: Medzivládna dohoda
Project leader: Ing. Rodný Marek PhD.
Annotation:Evapotranspiration (ET) represents the most important component of the water cycle. Proper ET estimates are essential for precise evaluation of energy and water balance studies. Several studies already documented deviations between measured and calculated evapotranspiration depending on environmental and weather conditions. The aim of this project is to assesses biophysical and environmental factors of influence on deviations between measured and calculated evapotranspiration losses and subsequently plant water requirements. Moreover, strong transfer of skills and knowledge on maintenance and operation of the lysimeter facilities, monitoring systems and evapotranspiration models is expected outcome of the international research cooperation.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017


National projects

Analysis of sediment impact rate on interaction between surface water and groundwater with implementation of progressive measurement methods
Analýza miery vplyvu sedimentov na interakciu povrchových tokov s podzemnými vodami pri implementácii progresívnych metód merania
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Velísková Yvetta PhD.
Annotation:Water have become a strategic resource of Millennium. Mutual interaction between surface water(SW) and groundwater(GW) is important aspect of water resources management. This is confirmed by documents of international importance(WFD,Horizon 2020,7.EAP,..), as well as domestic initiatives(RIS3,Danube Strategy,Agreements between EC and Slovakia,..). Content of the project is quantification of interaction between SW with low flow velocities and surrounding GW. There will be evaluated the reach of this interaction on occasion of level fluctuations in SW and in the surrounding GW, as well as the impact of bed sediments on interaction rate at sediment variant configuration and consistency. Institute of Hydrology SAS as a presenter of the project is due Structural Funds EU–OP R&D, fitted with modern measuring devices and software, therefore one of the project tasks will be application of the progressive methods for water bodies evaluation and assessment of their use in solving this type of water management problem.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Sensitivity of surface runoff generation in headwater catcements to intensive precipitation and landuse
Citlivosť tvorby povodňového odtoku na intenzívne zrážky a využívanie územia vo vrcholových povodiach
Program: APVV
Project leader: RNDr. Holko Ladislav PhD.
Annotation:The project is aimed at development of methodology of process-based modelling of flood runoff formation on hillslopes and catchments. The methodology will allow scientifically based evaluation of the performance of non-structural flood protection and erosion mitigation measures. Parameterization of hydrological processes and environment as well as validation of model outputs will be based on experimental measurements of runoff and erosion formation. Experimental data from the pilot catchment of the Myjava river will be supplemented by results obtained by Institute of Hydrology SAS, Technical university Zvolen, West-Hungarian university Sopron and Technical university Vienna.
Duration: 1.7.2016 - 30.6.2020

BIOSOIL - Elimination of degradation processes in soil by biodiversity restoring
Eliminovanie degradačných procesov v pôde obnovením biodiverzity
Program: APVV
Project leader: Ing. Lichner Ľubomír DrSc.
Annotation:The purposes of the project "Elimination of degradation processes in soil by soil biodiversity restoration" are focused on the detection and evaluation of the degree of susceptibility to soil to degradation processes, with a particular focus on susceptibility to erosion and compaction which belong to the most important degradation processes significantly decreasing soil fertility in the countries of European Union and threatening the stability of all components of the environment. The emphasis is placed on sustainable use of land and shall take account of the interaction between soil and water because it is necessary to manage these natural resources carefully and as much as possible to prevent their contamination. The project will use and elaborate innovative methods for assessing the soil properties that have to be adapted to the conditions in soils of Slovakia. Results and assessment will be presented and consulted at international level. Outputs from the project will benefit both: basic research (elaboration of innovative methods and evaluation procedures) as well as the practical application of the methodology by focusing on good agricultural practice for the economical use of land and water, thereby increasing the resistance of soils to degradation effects. This will also contribute significantly to the sustainable use of land.
Duration: 1.7.2016 - 30.6.2020

Experimental research of overland flow generation in small catchments
Experimentálny výskum tvorby povrchového odtoku v malých povodiach
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Holko Ladislav PhD.
Annotation:Hydrological catchment response to rainfall depends on many factors. A key role is played by the soils. Different runoff generation mechanisms act in the basin during a single rainfall event. Floods that occurred in recent years in small basins, stressed the importance of better information on catchment retention capacity. The project will address the runoff generation in different parts of the basin (various geological, pedological, topographic and vegetation conditions ) at a point, hillslope and catchment scale. It involves mapping of the infiltration capacity of the soil surface, the use of geophysical , hydrometric and isotopic measurements during rainfall simulation experiments . The objectives are determination of the rainfall amount and intensity at which the overland flow forms, investigation of the possibility of monitoring the soil water movement during extreme rainfall. The results may help in flood hazard mapping and overland flow generation in small catchments.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Identification of changes in hydrological regime of streams and mutual relation of extreme hydrologic events in complex river system of the Danube basin
Identifikácia zmien hydrologického režimu tokov a vzájomný vzťah extrémnych hydrologických udalostí v zložitom riečnom systéme povodia Dunaja
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Bačová Mitková Veronika PhD.
Annotation:The project is focused on the study and analysis of the changes in hydrological regime of selected streams in the Danube basin. Using appropriate mathematical methods there will be identified the change, variability, probabilistic properties and temporal parameters of significant historical floods and droughts. Risks of the simultaneously occurring extreme events will be examined by two-dimensional statistical analysis on the main stream and tributaries. Results of the project provide comprehensive information on whether and to what extent there are changes in the hydrological regime of flows in the Danube basin, and how the hydrological characteristics may affect the size and course of extreme hydrological situations. The knowledge gained will be useful in meeting the objectives of the Danube Strategy and fit the thematic priority RIS3 "Agriculture and Environment".
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Forest soils, their degradation and hydrological consequences
Lesné pôdy, ich degradácia a hydrologické konzekvencie
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Orfánus Tomáš PhD.
Annotation:Inherent for soils in natural-state ecosystems usually are superposed overlying horizons with low mineral matter component, formed mostly by different plant litter at different stages of biochemical decomposition and mechanical aggregation. Considering that more than 50% of volume of such materials are created by organic matter, they have specific physical properties (PhP) (high porosity, very low bulk density, peculiar structure and texture, frequent hydrophobicity, etc.), which significantly influence their hydraulic characteristics. Their water-retention capacity depends on the level of decomposition. Typical is also water repellency caused by specific organic compounds (mostly waxes) or living organisms (mostly hypha). The preferential lateral transport of water has been observed in these materials. The objective of the project is to describe the superposed histic horizons on selected locations with respect to their structure and other PhP and to quantify their influence on the initiation of hydrological processes like infiltration, water retention and runoff generation.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Localisation of accidental point sources of pollution in watercourses based on-line monitoring data
Lokalizácia bodových zdrojov havarijného znečistenia vodných tokov na základe údajov z on-line monitoringu
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Velísková Yvetta PhD.
Annotation:The aim of the proposed research project is the enlargement of the knowledge and practical contribution to solving a pollution source localization based on the time course of the pollutant concentration in the monitored profile of the river. The prevailing majority of existing simulation models is able to simulate the pollution spreading in the river flow direction only. In current advancing monitoring technologies a task can occur in which the monitored pollution time courses in the cross-flow profile are known, but the pollution source itself is unknown. The goal of such task is simply determination – source localisation (inverse problem). A practical solution of the defined inverse task may be helpful in solving similar tasks in water management practice in identifying sources of accidental pollution. The project also envisages the development of theoretical as well as practical procedures (incl. SW) for solving the above defined inverse problem.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2019

kanaly - New possibilities of use of drainage canal systems with taking into account the protection and use of a landscape
Nové možnosti využitia odvodňovacích kanálových sústav s ohľadom na ochranu a využívanie krajiny
Program: APVV
Project leader: Ing. Velísková Yvetta PhD.
Annotation:A drainage canal, as an artificial multifunctional anthropogenic element in a landscape, has its other specific functions, which were not paid attention yet. The reason of construction of canals was the intensification of agricultural production and discharge of inland waters. Its construction characters are analogical to a stream. These characters must be re-evaluated from the point of their functional use under concrete conditions of an area. Due to the change of agricultural policy, further construction and maintenance of drainage canals practically does not exist and the lifetime of connected technical segments is getting to the end. Secondary drainage canals are gradually overgrowth, woody vegetation develops and canals start to stop to fulfil their main function. Similar situation appears in main drainage canals, moreover, their use is bound to capacity of pumping stations. Primary and secondary drainage canals are important connective landscape elements and serve also as a refugium, or biocentre for several kinds of organisms. In the canal network there appear significant successive processes. Based on re-evaluation of present conditions of drainage canals there will be elaborated proposal of measures for improvement of their primary functions and proposal of their multifunctional use. New possibilities of use of drainage canals are important from the point of view of development and stability of biodiversity in a landscape.
Duration: 1.7.2015 - 28.6.2019

Soil water repellency as an indicator of soil drought
Vodoodpudivosť pôdy ako indikátor pôdneho sucha
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Šurda Peter PhD.
Annotation:Soil water repellency (SWR) or hydrophobicity contributes to many environmental problems, including for example, flooding, accelerated soil erosion, nutrient leaching, pollution of water ways, and reduced groundwater recharge. SWR is caused by organic compounds derived from living or decomposing plants or microorganisms. The probability of occurrence of SWR tends to increase in dry periods and decreases or completely disappears during extended wet periods, i.e., it can be a function of proneness to drought. The aim of our study is to estimate the relationships between the persistence, severity and index of SWR and the drought-proneness factor (meteorological drought index), which determine the severity of the climatic drought. Except for meteorological drought we will evaluate also corresponding minimal soil moisture values. We will analyze experimental localities, which will represent different soil types and different types of vegetation.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2019

The impact of biological soil crust and microtopography on infiltration and flow of water in sandy soil
Vplyv biologického pôdneho povlaku a mikrotopografie na infiltráciu a prúdenie vody v piesočnatej pôde
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Lichner Ľubomír DrSc.
Annotation:Infiltration of water into the soil can be spatially localized, and distribution to runon and runoff areas can be observed. The runoff areas, covered by biological soil crusts, can redistribute up to 20–40% of rainwater into the runon areas covered by plants. The first of the goals of project proposed is an estimation of the impact of biological soil crust in different stages of development/succession and microtopography (runon and runoff zones on the soil surface) on infiltration and flow of water in sandy soil and soil hydrophysical parameters. Another goal is an estimation of the relationship among the water repellency cessation time (WRCT), water drop penetration time (WDPT), and thickness of biological soil crust.
Duration: 1.1.2014 - 31.12.2017

Biochar impact on transport and retention of water in agricultural soil
Vplyv biouhlia na transport a retenciu vody v poľnohospodársky využívanej pôde
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Rodný Marek PhD.
Annotation:Recently, there has been much scientific interest in the biochar, a carbon-rich, solid co-product of biomass thermal degradation, mainly due to its potentially promising role in improving soil characteristics and climate change mitigation. Despite numerous studies predominantly based on laboratory research, conclusive evidence on biochar alteration of soil properties, processes and functions was not completed yet. Following research project will evaluate the extent and implications of biochar application on selected soil physical characteristics that can strongly influence water and energy transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

Influence of soil texture on water regime in unsaturated soil profile
Vplyv textúry pôdy na vodný režim v nenasýtenej zóne pôdneho prostredia
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Gomboš Milan CSc.
Annotation:Unsaturated soil zone is a triple-phase system in lithosphere, limited by soil surface and groundwater level. From systemic point of view, unsaturated soil zone is one of the sub-systems forming the system Atmosphere(A)–Plant cover(PC)–Unsaturated soil zone(UZ)–Groundwater(GW). UZ interacts with the other subsystems within the system A–PC–UZ–GW. The intensity of soil interaction processes depends on hydrophysical and hydraulic properties of soil, which are greatly defined by soil texture. Interactions cause temporal and spatial changes in unsaturated soil water regime elements. These changes form unsaturated soil water regime and can be observed in the change of soil water storage. The aim of the project is to quantify the influence of soil texture on unsaturated soil water regime. The project shall quantify the development of unsaturated soil interactions with the surrounding sub-systems of the system A–PC–UZ–GW. Newly constructed state-of-art technology will be used for the purposes of the project.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2019

Projects total: 22