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Geografický časopis


Volume 60, 2008, No. 1

Content:


  From false sense of security to residual risk: communicating the need for new floodplain development models
Burrell E. Montz 1), Graham A. Tobin 2)

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1)Department of Geography, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13 902. bmontz@binghamton.edu
2)Department of Geography University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 3 620. gtobin@cas.usf.edu


flood control, resitual risk, floodplain management, ubban development, land use change

Despite decades of research on floods, flood control, and floodplain management, the tendency is for residents and governments to repeat the past. Development continues in floodplains, rebuilding occurs after events with emphasis on controlling the flood, and upstream and upland development takes place with little consideration of its effects on flooding. Our history with managing floods has centered on flood control which still leaves a residual risk that is usually ignored because of the false sense of security generated by the control measures. Using case studies, this paper argues for a comprehensive approach that is centered on three elements: appropriate risk communication, comprehensive analyses of land use decisions, and attaching responsibility for risky choices at the level where the decision is made.

Geografický časopis. Volume 60, 2008, No. 1: 3-14.

 
  The climatic water balance of Slovakia based on the FAO Penman-Monteith potential evapotranspiration
Tomáš Hlásny 1), Peter Baláž 2)

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1)Lesnícky výskumný ústav,, T. G. Masaryka 22, 960 92 Zvolen. hlasny@nlcsk.org
2)National Forest Centre, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity of Forest Ecosystems, T. G. Masaryka 22, 960 92 Zvolen, Slovakia. balaz@nlcsk.org


climatic water balance, potential evapotranspiration, FAO Penman-Monteith method, Budyko’s method, Slovakia

Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to climate modelling, mainly because of the high vulnerability of society to climatic extremes. Climatic water balance, as the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, is an important indicator of landscape humidity, frequently used in bioclimatology. While precipitation can be measured directly at meteorological stations, the potential evapotranspiration must be derived analytically. It has been modelled in a GIS environment using publicly available climatic data. The FAO Penman-Monteith equation was used to assess it for the whole of Slovakia. Selected tools of geostatistics were used to produce the maps of underlying climate variables. It is generally agreed that altitude controls the spatial distribution of the climatic water balance. We derived a regression equation to describe this relationship. This enables the rough calculation of climatic water balance by regression of elevation data. The majority of former studies in Slovakia were based on Budyko’s method for PET calculation. To allow comparison of the results of this study with previous studies, differences between the outputs of both methods have been analysed statistically at 35 meteorological stations. The T-test of dependent samples and Wilcoxon matched paired test were used for the analysis. These proved that the FAO Penman-Monteith method gives significantly higher values than Budyko’s method during the whole year. Both constant wind speed of 2 m s-1 and actual wind speed at each meteorological station were used for the calculations. All the statistics and maps are given in the paper.

Geografický časopis. Volume 60, 2008, No. 1: 15-30.

 
  Hodnotenie fragmentácie krajinnej pokrývky na báze dátových vrstiev CORINE Land Cover
Monika Kopecká 1), Jozef Nováček 2)

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1)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava. geogmari@savba.sk
2)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava. jozef.novacek@sazp.sk


fragmentation, landscape configuration, forest area, CORINE Land Cover

Changes of landscape configuration, especially in the forest landscape, have raised concerns about habitat fragmentation and its impact on biodiversity. Effective conservation measures require knowledge about the factors that cause the forest fragmentation and about their effects. Landscape metrics based on remote sensing data can assist in quantifying the fragmentation process and in assessing habitat quality of the remaining forest. The CORINE Land Cover (CLC) databases represent appropriate input data that characterize the landscape in Slovakia in 1990 and in 2000. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to present the fragmentation assessment using the CLC databases. Quantification of indices: number of forest patches, mean patch size, total forest area, percentage of study area occupied by forest, total forest edge, forest proportion and forest connectivity based on both vector and raster data is presented in order to document the state and changes of forest area and its configuration. The study areas consist of 4 administrative districts situated in the northern part of Slovakia. Our results document not only the decrease of forestland in the period 1990-2000, but also a remarkable decrease in proportion of the core forest area. On the other hand, the area of the forest edge, forest patch and perforated forest categories increased.

Geografický časopis. Volume 60, 2008, No. 1: 31-44.

 
  Medzinárodné väzby jednotlivých okresov Slovenska na báze priamych dopravných prepojení
Daniel Michniak 1)

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1)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava. geogmich@savba.sk


international links, direct transport connections, train connections, bus connections, air connections, boat connections, public transport, districts, Slovakia

The article is concerned with the direct international transport connections of individual districts in Slovakia, which point to the wide spectrum of mutual linkages (economic, political, cultural, ...) between Slovakia and other countries. Direct transport links with individual countries were evaluated using their number as the criterion of intensity. The position of individual districts in relation to international public transport depends on their size (population number and economic performance), size of the regional centre, quality of transport infrastructure and the geographical position. The districts with the most intensive transport connections are Bratislava, Žilina, Trenčín and Košice. Connections with the Czechia prevail in the majority of districts. Based on the number of direct transport connections the most intensive link is between Bratislava and Vienna, Austria.

Geografický časopis. Volume 60, 2008, No. 1: 45-61.

 
  Agrosubjekty regiónu Nitra vo vzťahu k odberateľom poľnohospodárskych surovín
Peter Spišiak 1), Jana Némethová 2)

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1)Katedra humánnej geografie a demogeografie PF UK, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava. spisiak@fns.uniba.sk
2)Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa v Nitre, Fakulta prírodných vied, Katedra geografie a regionálneho rozvoja, Tr. A. Hlinku 1, 949 74 Nitra. jnemethova@ukf.sk


agricultural entities, Nitra region, vegetable and livestock production, purchasers of agricultural raw materials

The article deals with the evaluation of the suitability of the natural conditions for the development of agricultural production in the Nitra region. It provides a basic analysis of the entities that operate in this region and points out the position of the Nitra region in agricultural production. It also deals with the orientation of the agricultural entities with regard to vegetable and livestock production and examines the relations between the agricultural entities and the purchasers of agricultural raw materials. These relations form the framework of the model which displays the interconnections between the entities.

Geografický časopis. Volume 60, 2008, No. 1: 63-87.