Vedecké časopisy a ročenky vydávané na pôde SAV

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Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review


Volume 38, 2006, No. 2

Content:


 

recenzia:

 
  Brezák, Jozef: Úvod do štúdie demografie
Mária Suríková

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Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 38, 2006, No. 2: 189-191.

 
  Matlovič, René: Geografia obyvateľstva Slovenska so zreteľom na rómsku minoritu
Dagmar Popjaková

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Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 38, 2006, No. 2: 191-193.

 
  Leška, Dušan: Sociológia športu
Josef Oborný

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Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 38, 2006, No. 2: 193-196.

 
 

štúdia:

 
  Kriminalita žien a ženy vo väzení na Slovensku
Gabriela Lubelcová, Roman Džambazovič

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Female criminality; crime statistics; statistics of prosecuted offenders; female prison population; social profile of female prison population

Female Criminality and Female Prison Population in Slovakia. The contribution deals with women’s criminality in Slovak Republic as developed during the last decades. In the first part it surveys criminological interpretations and theories explaining female criminality. In the second part the trends of female criminality (changes in measures and structure of female criminality and crime rates) are analysed. Authors utilise official crime statistics of the Police Corps of Slovak Republic and discuss their limits. The third part is dedicated to the analysis of the statistics of prosecuted offenders. The attention is paid to differences of court’s sanctions between male and female offenders. Authors discuss criminological feminist thesis about bigger indulgence to female offences (the probation is more frequently delivered to female offences and male offences are more frequently punished by prison punishment) and argue that such situation is connected with specificity of female criminality (it is less serious than male criminality) and with specificity of criminal justice process (individual evaluation of offence and personal circumstances of its committing). In the fourth part authors analyse the female prison population in the Slovak Republic (socio-demographic, familiar, criminological characteristics) and compare their findings with similar studies about the female prison population in the Czech Republic. Although many characteristics between these female prison populations bear many common resemblances, Slovak female prison population is less educated, less qualified and less employed. These differences are related to wider social situations in both countries.

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 38, 2006, No. 2: 103-126.

 
  Drogová politika SR - sociologická reflexia diskurzu a metód
Radoslav Fedačko

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Drug policy; discourse; common sense; prevention of drug demand; prevention of drug supply

The Drug Policy of the Slovak Republic – Sociological Reflection about its Discourse and Methods. The article consists of two complementary parts. In the first part, the author sets out a brief description of the events, which he considers have played an important role in the process of „drug discourse“ construction in the Slovak Republic. Remains of the ideological taboo that has accompanied the use of illegal drugs during the communist era; absence of organizations that would reflect the consequences of illegal drug use upon the basis of modern and valid scientific knowledge; media-fabricated „moral panic“ and „sensation willing“ misinterpretation of reality; and, last but not least, intentional dramatization of the topic by politicians with the aim of gaining electorate; these have been the factors, which, among others, have contributed to the fact, that most of the knowledge constituting the character of the Slovak drug discourse could be characterized as belonging to the „common sense“ type. This in turn had a consequence in establishing a public policy based upon non-valid problem situation identification. The effects (although unintended) of this public policy were mainly revealed by further criminalisation and marginalisation of users of the illegal drugs, whereas almost no support was available for populations of users that had already been excluded and placed at the edge of society. The second part deals particularly with the two so-called „pillars“ of the Slovak drug policy: the prevention of drug demand and the prevention of drug supply. Knowledge backgrounds of methods of the two types of prevention are confronted with the actual and scientifically verified research outcomes in the discussed fields. This critical analysis reveals that most of the knowledge background giving shape to these methods and their implementation presents non-verified, sometimes even non-realistic expectations and images about the nature, causes and consequences of problem drug use. This gives support to the argument set in the first part of the text that methods of ameliorating problem consequences of illegal drug use constructed within Slovak drug discourse are mainly based upon „common sense“ type of knowledge.

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 38, 2006, No. 2: 127-150.

 
  Senioři v České republice. Mýty a jejich dekonstrukce
Dana Sýkorová

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Aging – old age – seniors; stereotypes and myths about old age; strategies for managing old age

Seniors in the Czech Republic. Myths and Their Deconstruction. The framework of this thesis is constructed upon the processes of the demographic aging, respectively current and future potential increase in the proportion of the seniors in Czech (as well as Slovak) population. The author points out the widespread tendency to describe the implications of the above phenomena in terms of crisis and labelling the seniors as social problem. This tendency is often strengthened by the negative stereotypes and myths about the old people that prevail in the society and in the end by itself contribute to their conservation. The article reviews and confronts the unfavourable socially constructed image of old age with the findings of the research Seniors in Society: Strategies of Maintaining Individual Autonomy. The survey was based on qualitative content analysis of the semi-structured interviews with the old people. The senior’s self-reflections and their own perception of aging reflected relatively positive interpretation of the problematic of health and referred to high effort to actively and independently cope with and bear up the health problems, possible difficulties arising from the every day life or the poorer financial situation. The findings also disclosed the accent the interviewees put upon their own independence, personal responsibility, the ability to be able to help out and be useful to the others as well as the emphasis they put on demands of recognition and appreciation of their integral competence. On the other hand the seniors proved to refuse the non-requested and excess assistance. The conclusions of the survey infirm the generally held and accepted notion of seniors as passive, not self-sufficient, permanently complaining individuals that selfishly pursue their own interests, often at the expense of the younger generations, and/or that delegate the responsibility for the quality of life in old age on to the state, professionals or family. The author also presents the strategies used by the seniors to cope with and manage their everyday life´ tasks including the problems associated with ageism.

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 38, 2006, No. 2: 151-164.

 
  Environmentalizmus a poľnohospodárska prax
Jana Klocoková, Jana Lindbloom

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Environmentalism; environmental politics; agriculture; Common Agricultural Policy; agro-environmental measures

Environmentalism and Agricultural Practice. Two spheres of social regulation are analysed in the study: the environment protection and agriculture. In the last decades, both of these areas have become frequently discussed topics in the media and in public debates. Representatives of environmental movements as well as scientists have played an important role in promoting an environmental agenda in the political arena. Environmental aspects of human activities have been incorporated into many legislative acts and regulations. The European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has also been modified to fulfil environmental requirements. The new concept of multifunctional agriculture, introduced in the reformed CAP, aspires to reflect the principle of sustainable development that seeks to take economical, social, and environmental facets of agriculture equally into consideration. Focusing on the case of northern Slovakia, we analysed the context of launching the reformed CAP into agricultural practice using the example of the implementation of agro-environmental measures. Drawing on interviews with local farmers, we conclude that the main barrier to enlarging the participation in agro-environmental schemes is not due to the farmers’ attitude to environmental or economic aspects, but to the social conditions of their agricultural enterprise.

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 38, 2006, No. 2: 165-188.