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Geografický časopis


Volume 55, 2003, No. 4

Content:


  Cartography in the age of Geographic Information Science
Michael Wood 1)

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1)Department of geography and Environment Centre for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, Scotland, United Kingdom.


cartography, map, geographic information system, geographic information science

Although cartography and GISystems can be regarded as separate disciplines they do overlap and have common roots. This paper traces origins and attempts to identify a more holistic field in which ”cartography” and GISystems contribute to the common human requirement to solve spatial problems. The first real maps, traced in sand, were early examples of this. However the growth of the traditional discipline led to classes of expert collecting and transform the data into graphic information as published maps. The result was a map-making/map-use dichotomy which, effectively, separated those having to solve problems from those creating the map tools to help them. The arrival of computers, global communication and multimedia has had a profound effect on cartography. Experts still operate in different areas – from specialised design to the application of maps in research and analysis – but new interactive web-based facilities now offer even general users the possibility to start employing cartography (and not just pre-printed maps) directly. This interactive process of seeking, assembling and modifying maps and data on the Web is leading to a shift from the dichotomy paradigm, and a move back to a more basic situation. Users – expert and novice – can now become involved, more directly in ”using cartography”, rather than just ”using maps”. So GISystems and GIScience have not isolated themselves from mapping. Mapping (and cartography) are integral to the whole procedure of spatial problem-solving. Key words: cartography, map, geographic information system, geographic information science

Geografický časopis. Volume 55, 2003, No. 4: 267-278.

 
  Spatial dynamics of Mediterranean coastal regions: a survey
Bernardo Cori

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coastal regions, spatial dynamics, demographic and touristic pressure, Mediterranean countries

A series of phenomena of growth, change and pressure have characterized the spatial evolution of the coastal belt of both developed and developing Mediterranean countries over the last few decades, from Spain to Italy, from Croatia to Turkey, from Cyprus and Malta to Maghreb countries. These phenomena include, according to different local situations, demographic and touristic pressure towards the coast, change in coastal settlement systems, industry development and traffic growth, land use and cover change, and consequently a lot of problems for coastal spatial planning. Key words: coastal regions, spatial dynamics, demographic and touristic pressure, Mediterranean countries

Geografický časopis. Volume 55, 2003, No. 4: 279-289.

 
  The contraction of the railway network in Poland
Zbigniew Taylor 1)

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1)Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania im. Stanislawa Leszczyckiego, Polska Akademia Nauk, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa, Polska.


railway lines, network contraction, closure reasons, closure effects, Poland

In a paper consisting of three parts, the first characterizes railway closures in Poland. Three periods of more extensive closures can be distinguished. The first embraces the years 1944-1948, when some 38 % of the total railway network was destroyed and then partly divested by the Soviet Red Army troops as war-booty. The second period of withdrawals (1961-1990) relates mainly to narrow-gauge railways and is connected with growing competition from road transport. The third and last period of extensive closures came after 1990 and is exceptional due to its extraordinary scale. The majority of the present closures are linked to the poor economic situation of the Polish rail, and decisions are made on the basis that immediate effects may be gained in the form of a lowering of running costs. This is not a conscious strategy of the state and closures frequently lack any economic, social or ecological background. The reasons of the present withdrawals are given in the second part of the paper. And finally, in the third part of the paper, a typical process of the contemporary railway closure is characterized. Key words: railway lines, network contraction, closure reasons, closure effects, Poland

Geografický časopis. Volume 55, 2003, No. 4: 291-307.

 
  Future Perspectives for Small Urban Centres in Austria
Walter Zsilincsar 1)

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1)Institut für Geographie und Raumforschung, Universität Graz, Heinrichstraße 36, A-8010 Graz, Österreich.


globalization historical heritage, urban hierarchy, city-project, urban renewal, integrated and participatory planning, Austria

The paper discusses perspectives for the future development of small urban centres in Austria. After some general remarks on their specific role within an urban network and the challenges they face in a globalizing world historical heritage is being analysed as one future chance for positive development. Using the example of the small industrial town and district capital Waidhofen an der Ybbs some successful ways and possibilities of urban renewal are presented. This leads to a final treatment and evaluation of integrated and participatory planning strategies as a basis for urban sustainable development. Key words: globalization historical heritage, urban hierarchy, city-project, urban renewal, integrated and participatory planning, Austria

Geografický časopis. Volume 55, 2003, No. 4: 309-324.

 
  Meteorological and hydrological extremes in the Dietrichstein domains of Dolní Kounice and Mikulov between 1650 and 1849 according to official economic records of natural disasters
Rudolf Brázdil 1), Hubert Valášek 2), Zbyněk Sviták 3)

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1)Geografický ústav, Prírodovedecká fakulta Masarykovy univerzity, Kotlárská 2, 611 37 Brno, Ceská republika.
2)Moravský zemský archiv, Žerotínovo nám. 3-5, 656 01 Brno, Ceská republika.
3)Ústav pomocných ved historických a archivnictví, Filosofická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity,, A. Nováka 1, 602 00 Brno, Ceská republika.


historical climatology, economic records about damage, floods, convectional storms, strong winds, frosts, domains of Dolní Kounice and Mikulov

The paper shows the possibilities of obtaining data about hydrological and meteorological extremes from official economic evidence about natural disasters recorded at the level of domain, region and land management. It is a new source of information for creating the series of extremes before the beginning of systematic observations. The recording of this data was connected with the applications of the subjects for tax abatement due to damage caused by natural disasters or with the information of the domain managers to their owners about important events at the domain. Records about damage in the Dietrichstein domains of Dolní Kounice and Mikulov in southern Moravia between 1650 and 1849 are analysed. From them it is possible to obtain information about floods, convectional storms, strong winds, early and late frosts. Series of these extremes are presented, further completed by known sources from the area studied. An important increase in extremes took place after the 1760s, which must be related partly to a higher number of preserved records, including the increased bureaucratisation of the state management, partly to the increased climate variability in the final stage of the so-called Little Ice Age. Key words: historical climatology, economic records about damage, floods, convectional storms, strong winds, frosts, domains of Dolní Kounice and Mikulov

Geografický časopis. Volume 55, 2003, No. 4: 325-353.

 
  Renovační geoekologie a zvláště chráněná území
Jaromír Demek 1)

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1)Masarykova univerzita, Pedagogická fakulta, Katedra geografie, Poříčí 7, 603 00 Brno.


geoecology, restoration geoecology, specially protected areas, series of monographs Protected Areas of the Czech Republic

In this paper presented at the Symposium ”Sixty years of the Institute of Geography of the Slovak Academy of Sciences” held at Smolenice Castle, Slovak Republic the author informs scientists and general public about the present state of geoecology in the Czech Republic and especially about the series Protected Areas of the Czech Republic. Key words: geoecology, restoration geoecology, specially protected areas, series of monographs Protected Areas of the Czech Republic.

Geografický časopis. Volume 55, 2003, No. 4: 373-380.