Vedecké časopisy a ročenky vydávané na pôde SAV

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Geografický časopis

Volume 56, 2004, No. 3


Ján Paulov 1)

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1)Katedra regionálnej geografie, ochrany a plánovania krajiny, PríF UK, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava.

spatial interaction modelling, entropy maximization

The spatial interaction model resulting from maximizing entropy subject to only marginal (row and column) flows is extremely simple since it does not contain any parameters requiring estimation. The deficiency of this model is, however, that it does not contain any variable representing the spatial separation of the origin zone i from the destination zone j. Such a variable is considered essential in spatial interaction modelling. The purpose of this paper is to design a model exhibiting the simplicity of this model and containing at the same time such a variable in the form of transportation cost, cij. The basic idea to achieve this lies in replacing Tij by the product Tij cij = Zij and dealing with this new variable, Zij, as with Tij; so the corresponding entropy objective function is defined and then maximized subject to only marginal (row and column) transportation costs. The resulting model exhibits the simplicity of the model mentioned above, but it estimates Zij, not Tij. Therefore, in order to estimate Tij, it is necessary to assume additionally that cij is known; then Tij = Zij /cij. If this operation is admissible, and the author finds it crucial for the model, then the final form of the model designed bears the structure of a spatial interaction model of gravity type. The purpose of this model is only to give first, preliminary estimates of interaction flows when one wants to avoid the estimation of model parameters, a procedure which sometimes may not be computationally simple.

Geografický časopis. Volume 56, 2004, No. 3: 173-185.

Blaž Komac 1), Matej Gabrovec

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1)Anton Melik Geographical Institute, Gosposka ulica 13, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

geomorphology, dolomite relief, denudation, Slovenia

The paper discusses geomorphological features of Slovenia’s dolomite areas, which cover about a tenth of its surface. It describes the most important dolomite relief features in Slovenia and analyses the most important geomorphological processes. Dolomite is a carbonate rock so it is easily dissolvable in water. Compared with limestone relief, the transformation process in dolomite relief is more rapid due to the high rate of physical weathering processes. Geomorphological fieldwork was carried out in two case areas in the Polhov Gradec hills and on the Žibrše plateau. Characteristic relief has developed in dolomite areas due to the interaction of fluvial and karst processes, which have so far (sometimes incorrectly) been designated as fluvial karst.

Geografický časopis. Volume 56, 2004, No. 3: 187-201.

Ľubomír Solín 1)

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1)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava.

national regression equation, regional regression equation, at site regression equation, pair comparison, regional types

Two approaches to application of regional regression equations in hydrogeography or hydrology are analysed. The first approach concerns regional regression equations used instead of one national equation and the second is based on application of regional regression equations instead of at site ones. Two methodological aspects: division of the interest territory into regional units and the ensuing consequences for the choice of physical explanatory variables at the regional level and comparison of the area regression equations from the point of view of differences between regression coefficients are emphasized in the analysis. The quoted approaches to regional regression are applied to the estimate of long-term average annual runoff, or annual runoff.

Geografický časopis. Volume 56, 2004, No. 3: 203-224.

Anton Michálek 1)

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1)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava.

spatial differentiation of poverty, measurement of poverty, poverty indicators, poverty cores, poverty level, deprivation, Slovakia

The principal aim of the study was to measure the poverty level in municipalities of a selected region which is characterized as the poorest in Slovakia. Municipalities with an extreme poverty level, which can be considered real poverty centres, were simultaneously identified. Identification of poverty cores is an important prerequisite and a salient point in the search for solutions and elimination of poverty in the struck municipalities. The poverty level in 479 municipalities was measured by means of objective poverty indicators while data from the 2001 Census of persons, houses and flats were used. The method of multiple deprivation, where the size of the resulting deprivation determines the poverty level, was used. It was found that there are disparities in poverty level between the individual municipalities even in the region with the highest poverty level. A very serious situation (high poverty level) was observed in 100 municipalities where the poverty indicator reached critical values. Cognition of the local-spatial dimension of poverty or identification of poverty cores represent important aspects for gradual elimination of poverty in struck municipalities (a better targeted and more efficient assitance).

Geografický časopis. Volume 56, 2004, No. 3: 225-247.

Ján Pravda 1)

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1)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava.

logic of map, map logics, logical aspects in cartographic projection, generalization, representation and map reading

A survey of references which contain the term map logic is presented. Map logic is interpreted by the dictionaries published in Slovakia as: (1) correctness of map expression of a given theme, (2) mutual coherence of map signs which facilitates a correct interpretation of the map and development of thinking procedures up to logical conclusions. M. Eckert, E. Arnberger, W. Will and others developed the notion of map logic. It is obvious that map logic deserves more attention now, above all in connection with adoption of procedures in which more exact approaches represented by intelligent computer technology prevail.

Geografický časopis. Volume 56, 2004, No. 3: 249-262.