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OBSAH 2/2003, s. 105-192
CONTENTS 2/2003, p. 105-192






Základné teoretické princípy Hayekovej kompozitívnej metódy poznania spoločnosti

Vladimír Manda

Katedra spoločenských vied FEM SPU, Nitra

Main Theoretical Principles of Hayek`s Composition Method of Society Cognition. The paper gives an analysis of the main theoretical principles of Hayek`s composition method. The analysis focuses on three essential principles of subjectivism, individualism and principle of rational synthesis. They are not analysed in their universal and abstract forms or meaning, but in their specific ‘Hayek`s’ form, in which they are used as building principles of his open society concept, explicated in his famous work ‘Law, Legislation and Liberty’. Are his principles coherent with the explicated concept? Or, on contrary, is the explicated concept the real form of applied principles which are taken by Hayek as presumptive for given concept? This problem is the ground of this paper. The results of analysis indicate the contradictions between the starting principles and their consequences. Subjectivism leads to spontaneous order, however this one is objective. Individualism leads to abstract rules, but these serve as general schemes of human behaviour.

Sociológia 2003 Vol. 35 (No. 2: 107-124)

Slovenský vidiek na konci dvadsiateho storočia

Stanislav Buchta

Národný úrad práce, Bratislava

Slovak Countryside at the End of the 20th Century. The article deals with social changes occurring in the Slovak countryside in connection with transformation processes. It also deals with the impact of these changes on rural population. In the late 20th century, there is an increasing number of houses that are permanently uninhabited, there are changes happening to the settlement structure. Rural population went through internal restructuring towards the end of the last century, the share of inhabitants living in larger rural settlements or near urbanised centres was increasing, and on the other hand, the number of inhabitants living in the smallest settlements was decreasing. Parallel to these changes, the divergence between rural and agricultural, and the agrarian industry is less influencing the rural areas. The rural population is starting to get more socially differentiated. So-called agrarian unemployment arises; it has been firmly established within the rural unemployment structure. In the future development, the labour force having the employee-status will be more and more reduced. On the other hand, other status forms and labour force structures will be gaining higher importance and esteem, especially as to small private farms. The headcount in the agricultural industry will be very variable, cyclic and structurally differentiated. The importance of seasonal labour force, particularly with small-size entrepreneurial subjects, will be growing, and it will be absorbing the groups of inhabitants who are little in demand on the labour force market. There is a renewal of the ”seasonal worker” status that was very common in the past; this status is closely connected with a combined income composed of wage and welfare benefits. There are apparent growing trends towards revival of rural areas, towards shifting rural areas into a different social-economical level alongside some indications towards a revival of countryside that are caused by discovering self-evident advantages of rural environment.

Sociológia 2003 Vol. 35 (No. 2: 125-140)

Občania so zdravotným postihnutím ako sociálna minorita – základ formulovania antidiskriminačnej legislatívy

Kvetoslava Repková

Ministerstvo práce, sociálnych vecí a rodiny Slovenskej republiky

Physically Disabled Citizens as Social Minority – A Basis for Preparing the Anti-discrimination Legislation. In the presented text, the author deals with the issue of physical disability and the impact of physical disability on the life of an individual, i.e. what practical disadvantages are imposed on the affected individual by having such disability when compared to people having no such disability. The author describes in more detail various models of physical disability that involve the history of how society has been approaching this phenomenon. According to the author, the presence of disadvantages arising from physical disability that affect the life of a human beings entitles the disabled to be considered as a minority. The author makes distinction between two types of approach to this minority: on one side, there is an approach that is currently becoming a basis for preparing anti-discrimination legislation and for launching a global campaign promoting human rights protection; this approach is put to contrast against a traditional collective approach that is based on general indemnification of the disabled by means of social welfare and labour policy measures. The author looks at some contradictory areas, which, in real-life practice, make it more difficult to think of the disabled as an internally as well as externally coherent minority. This fact, however, does not weaken the UN-level effort of professional experts and activists for human rights of the persons with physical disability who are currently working on preparation of General Declaration of Human Rights of Persons with Physical Disability.

Sociológia 2003 Vol. 35 (No. 2: 141-162)

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