Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press


OBSAH 5/1999, s. 421-564
CONTENTS 5/1999, p. 421-564



Sociálna patológia
Social Pathology



Obnovou občianskej spoločnosti k občanokracii

Róbert Roško

Sociologický ústav SAV, Bratislava

Citizencracy as a Result of the Restoration of Civic Society. Article discusses the various arguments and against the proposal and acceptance of a new terminological innovation, proposed by the author. Such innovation concerns a new notion in the terminology of both sociology and political science: the concept of citizencracy and its derivatives such as citizencrat, citizencratic. Author argues that the concept of citizencracy expresses more accurately and adequately, what is after the fall of communism and promotion of the restoration of civic society traditionally called the necessity of the restoration of democracy.

The concept of democracy is usually criticised for being a legacy of the post-feudal thought: it is the “power of the people” as set against “the power of the feudal aristocracy”. Such antinomy leads per analogiam to the understanding of the democracy as the “power of the proletariat” in contrast to the undemocratic “power of the bourgeoisie”. However it is not at all the case with the concept of citizencracy that does not stand only against the particular form of civilisation deficit but also against any civilisation deficit in general.

Proposed innovative perspective shall not lead to the discarding of the term of democracy from the social scientific dictionary. On contrary, citizencracy comprises traditional democracy as its historical condition, as its logical basis, though it adds something “extra” to the original concept of democracy. This “extra” appears to be equal to the feature pointed out by the Polish sociologist Jerzy Szacki in his analysis of the resources of the renaissance of the idea of civic society. Citizencracy deepens and develops the traditionally pursued democracy and enhances it to the higher developmental stage.

Sociológia 1999 Vol. 31 (No. 5: 431-440)

Některé aspekty národní identity a současných integračních procesů

František Zich

Sociologický ústav AV ČR, Praha

Article deals with some of the issues concerning national identity and ongoing integration processes in Europe. The conceptions of both the nation and the nation-state are examined from the point of their historical contexts and contemporary events and changes. It is being argued that the nation states in Europe are far from being mere myths or redundant structures since they successfully face the integration challenges and still fulfil many important functions.

Author enlists all main currents of European integration (political field, economic co-operation, regional co-operation and civic contacts). Greater attention is paid to the idea of the Europe of regions. As the data from sociological researches indicate, the European public is not much in favour of further strengthening of regions’ influence and further divisions of nation states.

As the important (if not the most important) stream of integration is considered to be the across border civic co-operation, i.e. establishment and maintenance of informal civic relationships. Aspects that might positively or negatively influence these relationships are demonstrated on an example of the across border co-operation on Czech-German border. The core of the across border co-operation and the creation of the across border community is made by approximately only 5% of local inhabitants, who maintain relationships on the ”personal level”. The rest of the inhabitants have only occasional and incidental contacts with their foreign neighbours.

Article points at some ambivalent tendencies and contradictory phenomena in the processes of European integration.

Sociológia 1999 Vol. 31 (No. 5: 441-458)

Budovanie komunistickej moci a bezmocnosti

Zdeněk Konopásek - Zuzana Kusá

Centrum pro teoretická studia AV ČR / UK Praha,

Sociologický ústav SAV Bratislava

Construction of Communist Power and Powerlessness. This paper turns attention to the period of state socialism. Its aim is to suggest and illustrate a theoretical and analytical framework for making the communists’ power problematic from sociological point of view. We would like to promote such a perspective in which the power of communists is not taken - explicitly or implicitly - as something that explains the logic of life under the communist regime; rather, on the contrary, we present it as something that needs to be explained. As such, our approach is inspired by contemporary sociology of science, especially by Bruno Latour and John Law whose effort is in many respects similar to ours. After a theoretical outline of the approach, we perform its modest practical illustration. We use short extracts from two biographical narratives for an analysis of one particular situation in which the communist power played an important role: the political screenings that followed the military invasion into Czechoslovakia at the end of so called Prague Spring. The screenings are interpreted, in this analytical sketch, as “trials of strength” as well as “real transformations” both of the communist regime itself and all its actors. Above all, we focus on the moments when somebody or something was transformed into a fulcrum, an indisputable and stable entity, or, on the other hand, into a questionable, not-quite-real, because negotiable and reversible network of relations. These moments help us to show the heterogeneous and often surprisingly subtle sources of the political power that constituted state socialism and made it durable.

Sociológia 1999 Vol. 31 (No. 5: 459-480)

Zkušenost české populace s trhem práce

Petr Mareš

Fakulta sociálních studií Masarykovy univerzity, Brno

Experience of the Czech Population with the Labour Market. As a result of social change the labour market has emerged in the Czech republic. The process of its establishing is accompanied with the growing unemployment rate now. Some social categories, which were lifted on the primary labour market up through the redistribution of sources by socialist state before. Nowadays they are moving down on the secondary labour market again. Their members have already became aware that their downward in the secondary labour market does not represent only a transitional costs necessary for their future life in affluence. Their perception of the decline of their own social position as a definitive one weakens legitimacy of the market for them. Anomie is growing up among them. A lot of people say today: “average men are getting worse now - compared it with the situation before 1989”. The most of people judge: “The social change has enlarged our civil right, it has not touched our political right but it limited our social right.”

Sociológia 1999 Vol. 31 (No. 5: 481-488)

Sociálna patológia

Ondrejkovič Peter

Katedra sociológie výchovy a sociológie mládeže Pedagogickej fakulty UK, Bratislava

Social Pathology. The period between 1989 and 1999 in Czechoslovakia (later Czech Republic and Slovakia) witnessed the changing trends in the development of criminality. Articles contain the basic information about the development of criminality as well as the trends for its prevention. Authors stress the need to understand the social pathology as the branch of sociology. Ondrejkovič, Peter: Social Pathology; Lubelcová, Gabriela: Primal Trends and Risks in the Development of Criminality in Slovakia Between 1989 and 1999; Scheinost, Miroslav: Primal Trends and Risks in the Development of Criminality in the Czech Republic Between 1989 and 1999; Večerka, Kazimír: Contemporary Trends in the Prevention of Criminality in the Czech Republic.

Sociológia 1999, Vol. 31 (No. 5: 489-518)

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