Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press


OBSAH 4/1999, s. 321-420
CONTENTS 4/1999, p. 321-420





Z dejín sociologického myslenia
History of Sociological Thought


Book Reviews

Roľník, družstevník, agropodnikateľ
Cesty privatizácie a podnikania v poľnohospodárstve na Slovensku

Oľga Danglová - Iveta Námerová

Etnologický ústav SAV, Bratislava

Výskumný ústav ekonomiky poľnohospodárstva a potravinárstva, Bratislava

From Farmer and Co-Operative Farmer to Agro-Entrepreneur (Ways of agricultural privatisation and entrepreneurship in Slovakia). The article analyses the strategies of property acquirement of independently operating farmers as a distinctive social-professional group within the ongoing process of re-structuralisation of agricultural sector. Data is derived from the interpretations of direct actors of privatisation whose actions are inquired within the broader historical and current social-political setting. Authors notice that agrarian policy, due to the alternation of governing garnitures, imposed an unequal pressure on the process of privatisation, supporting on the one hand the individual farmers and on the other the collective farms - state farms and co-operative farms. They call attention to the obstacles that slowed down the privatisation process - the character of pre-war development of Slovak agriculture and habitude in the traditional institutionalised pattern of collectivisation. Detailed attention is paid to the various forms of privatisation related to the various sizes of the farms. Independently operating farmers on the small farms are rather oriented towards the past, revitalising the traditional methods of farming. Though these farmers outnumber any other group, the area of the soil they cultivate is from the national perspective negligible. Agrarian popular model becomes the existential basis in the regions with a high unemployment rate. As the article indicates, the classical model of family farms, cultivating mid-size areas, is in reality very rare one. In contrast, as very vital appears to be the agro-entrepreneurial model with some characteristics of the commercial agricultural mass production. Agro-entrepreneurs, cultivating mostly rented larger size areas (several hectares) are production oriented and focused towards the future. They differ in regard to their original starting position, e.g. restitiusoniosts and former managers of collective farms, who sometimes enforce their entrepreneurial activities by gaining from-inside control over collective farms. Common feature of persons choosing the entrepreneurial strategies is their ability to make a decision, to risk, taking a chance to privatise and acquiring property as the base of their entrepreneurial plan. Important role is played by their professional experience and sometimes capital, earned from grey economy; professional and social position in local community and grand economy, providing the web of connections and access to information. Favourable interplay of these circumstances facilitates and accelerates the development of economic activities of agro-entrepreneurs.

Sociológia 1999 Vol. 31 (No. 4: 323-340)

Občania so zdravotným postihnutím v procese spoločenskej integrácie _ medzinárodné dokumenty a skúsenosti

Kvetoslava Repková

Ministerstvo práce, sociálnych vecí a rodiny, Bratislava

Disabled Citizens in the Process of Social Integration - International Documents and experiences. The article, being a part of recent publication ”Disabled citizens in the process of social integration (1998)”, deals with the issue of social integration of disabled citizens considering their handicaps in relation to the standard life conditions. Integration is understood as a general principle of the working of society, based on the social learning and maturing of the individual, leading to a state of internal personal integrity. Integration is accepted in any form unless it threatens the interests and rights of other people. Interests of social integration recently motivate in many ways the state’s efforts to promote improvement of general life conditions for all citizens.

Special attention is being paid to the international documents and experiences, which form the basis for the projection of Slovak national legislation in the area of formation of life conditions for the disabled citizens. Article introduces a model of universal design in architectonic planning and information technologies, recently apprehended as having global meaning for making equal life conditions for all citizens. The model perceives the issue of integration of disabled citizens rather from the legal and technical-instrumental as from the medical and social-humanitarian perspective. Such model is crucial for making any systemic actions for the present and the future. Author also highlights the importance of individual-compensation model (e.g. social assistance for severely handicapped citizens), which has a strong tradition in Slovak society. In combination with the techniques of universal design model becomes the individual-compensation model a real chance to change the lives of the disabled citizens.

Sociológia 1999, Vol. 31 (No. 4: 341-358)

Sociálne a etické aspekty hospitalizovaného starého človeka

Mária Sabová - Hudáková

Školská správa, Michalovce

Social and Ethical Aspects of Hospitalised Aged People. Ageing of population belongs among the most concerning social issues of contemporary societies, raising many social, economic and ethical questions in various spheres of public life, especially in the spheres of public health and welfare policies. Their spontaneous growth and complexity make these questions alarming problems. A public health system and special welfare care then carry the biggest responsibility.

The article inquires into how the hospital environment influences the adaptation of aged people and attempts to provide a helpful feedback for improving the quality of the health care system. Author aims to uncover the hidden limitations of which the health care personnel were not aware. This may lead to the improvement of efficiency of the health care system and also to the fulfilment of the ethical mission of public health institutions. Although the majority of patients cannot sufficiently review the professional standards of supplied diagnostics and therapies, there are many other activities and services that influence their adaptation and feelings of satisfaction.

Author bases the research on the standardised dialogue, asking patients the questions about the behaviour of physicians and hospital personnel, amiability of the hospital environment and problems connected with their family relations. Statistical measurement of obtained data leads to the findings of how are the observed ratios interrelated. As the article indicates, the findings of the research shall appeal to general public to re-evaluate their attitudes toward ill and aged people.

Sociológia 1999 Vol. 31 (No. 4: 359-374)

Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press