Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press
Volume 50, 2002, No. 2
The article attempts to depict a construct of the national Slovak mythology, seen from the aspect of the recent fundamental political and social changes, as well as of an prospective tendency, all intended on the period of the important historical turns, in the process, that heads to an interesting situation of deconstruction and reconstruction new national myths. There have happened two fundamental turns in the history of the collective memory of the Slovaks – the fall of the communism happens to be the first, and the establishment of a new state, the Slovak Republic (as a consequence of the split of former Czechoslovakia in 1993) was the second of the two turns.
The author follows the historical contexts, continuity and discontinuity of the collective memory of the Slovaks after 1993, while focusing on: official state symbols and holidays celebrated in the new state, also on historical and mental stereotypes, that happened to become the fundamental identity codes used by the citizens of Slovakia. The author follows these all in two views:
As the research shows, the official holidays, symbols and myths in the time around the millenium turn were emphasizing an anticommunist tendency (bounded to the turn in 1989), as well as strengthening the national identity and Christian construction of the memory.
We can identify several mechanisms working in the process of the establishment of the national myths:
1/ persistency of the myths, historical stereotypes and symbols
Continuity of the already build up and established myths of ”Slovakness” and ”Slovaks”, that used to be a part of the memory of the historical periods, as well as ”the modernization” or ”postmodernization” of the myths
2/ the ”pulling down” the myths (if real or demonstrative)
3/ the process of creating new myths (”old – new”).
As the research showed, the fundamental official symbols and the most important parts of the Slovak national identity and mythology bound to the years 1840– 1849 (flag, national anthem), or eventually to the middle of the 19th century (the plebeian line of the self-portrait of the Slovak). Also the establishment of some ”new holidays and symbols” intended e.g. to ”the mythology of the middle” seems interesting, as well as the comparison of the declared official standard and the everyday holidays celebration or an eventual ”persistency” of the myths and stereotypes. The necessity of the revaluation of some myths, that seems to be very important for the future, concerns mainly the plebeian perception line of the Slovaks, as well as an ”emptening” of the historical memory. Even Slovakia used to form several multinational state forms (Kingdom of Hungary, Czechoslovakia), it does not relate to their history, it also does not reflect enough the fact, that the Slovaks took part in the creation of the history of these state forms in the past. This necessity does cohere to underestimating of the middle class and the intellectual élites. The whole myth of the ”plebeiness” of the Slovaks was emphasized and strengthened mainly by means of ”superior power of folklore” in the time of establishing the communism. Some ”historical eradication” shows the right place for manipulation with it and also for an intentional usage of the ”fake”, utile myths, performed by some political parts or even individual politicians only for strengthening their actual political positions.
These ”fake” myths are composed mainly to strengthen the ”picture of the enemy” and they usually obtain strong emotions.
SN2/2002, p. 147-170
This study deals with the problem of identification aspects of local radio broadcast as a result of democratisation of mass media in the former socialist Macedonia. Soon after Macedonia became an independent state (till of Yugoslav socialist federation in 1991–1992 dissolution), its private media – especially electronic – boomed in unprecedented way. In the early 1990s capital of Macedonia – Skopje became a world phenomenon concerning number of newly-established private radio stations. The estimation is that, beside 29 public local radio stations, somewhere around 190 private radio stations have been established in Macedonia and got a licence, but furthermore, many stations broadcast without a licence. Author’s presupposition was that obvious differences between the formats and apparent features of self-presentation among various radio stations from Skopje could, in a way, indicate, or even mark off, different audiences. Audiences, based on musical taste, preferring particular radio formats, typically don’t fit with other urban social groups. Skopje doesn’t differ much from other urban conglomerates with various (post)modern western lifestyles. Predominately pop and rock oriented formats of radio stations in Skopje prove it the most efficiently. Author describes dioffernet co-existing cultural complexities in the city of Skopje through the discussion of its various radio formats and visual and aural promoting material of some chosen private radio stations. He is interested only in music formats, shows, deignes and material (including self-presentations in the auditory forms of avisos, jingles, signature tones, promos, station-intents, call-signals, sound.effects and other characteristic signals), not iin news and other parts of the programme at the radio stations in Skopje.There are several types of local radio broadcast in Skopje: modernist Yugo – pop format, domestic and international youth oriented pop and rock format, International pop format, international artúclassical and jazz format, ethnic format.
At the end of Novembre, 2000, Macedonian mediascape, especially the private radio stations in Skopje, didn’t expose the nationalist overtones. On the contrary, radio broadcast predominately fit Western standard. All modern ethnic groups are already internally culturally divided. Among internal divisions, the divisions based on taste are the most subtle as well as the most powerful. Plurality of the air over Skopje is a good sign and social capital for its future.
SN2/2002, p. 171-185