Electronic Library of Scientific Literature
Volume 51 / No. 4 / 1999
Ľ. Mičian: Geography, physical geography, landscape ecology, geoecology: interpretation and functions. Geografický časopis, 51, 1999, 4, 6 figs., 39 refs.
The author presents his new alternative system of geographical sciences and the one of physical/geographical sciences. The proposal reflects the development of landscape ecology and it is accompanied by author's definition. He also observes that there exist at least six different interpretations of geocology in literature and presents reasons of his own concept of geoecology.
Key words: system of geographical and physical/geographical sciences, landscape ecology, geoecology
K. Billwitz: Theory of cognition and didactic aspect of the twodimensional pictoral models in landscape ecology at the univesity education. Geografický časopis, 51, 1999, 4, 6 figs., 25 refs.
The twodimensional pictoral models introduced in this study follow the catena-principle. Site-chains ("Standortketten") and landscape-ecological correlative profiles ("landschaftsökologische Kausalprofile") are very useful in the education of students in geography, geo-ecology and landscape ecology for explaining landscape-ecological analyses and illustrating their results. It is of great importance to organize and analyze field results in such a manner that the correlative relation of the individual features to each other and to relief are clearly indicated, that they support the typification following the CGSA (complex geo-ecological site analysis = "Komplexe Geoökologische Standortanalyse"), and that the landscape-ecological types can also be described verbally. Landscape- -ecological catenas ("landschaftsökologische Catenen") and landscape-ecological sequences ("landschaftsökologische Sequenzen") are very useful to stimulate landscape-ecological syntheses: first, they explicitly display the correlative relations between landscape features, landscape factors and landscape components; second, they illustrate the systematics of landscape units and mosaic formation (mosaic formation in the geo-chorological dimension). The preparation of this kind of pictorial model stimulates the ability of students to think analytically and complexly and should be indispensable in geographical and landscape-ecological student research.
Key words: landscape ecology, geoecology, methodology, profile cuts, picture models, site chain, causal profile, catena, sequence, transect
J. Demek: Geoecology into the Twenty-first century. Geografický časopis, 51, 4, 1999, 2 figs., 2 tabs., 44 refs.
Geoecology is a typical child of the development of environmental sciences during the Twentieth century. The term geoecology was proposed by German geographer Carl Troll first 1966. According author's opinion the geoecology in the Twenty-first century must undergo a shift from recent conservation/preservation/protection tasks to restoration geoecology. Restoration geoecology is defined as the study of all applications of geoecological theories designed to relieve "acute" anthropogenic disturbances and restore self-maintaining geosystems. Many of the developments within geoecology in the Twenty-first century will be facilitated by the application of newly emerged technologies for continuous landscape monitoring, dating, remote sensing, GIS and data storage/manipulation.
Key words: geoecology, recent trends in geoecology, conservation geoecology, restoration geoecology, perspectives of geoecology.
Pavol Plesník: The influence of orography and relief on the vegetation of Slovakia. Geografický časopis, 51, 1999, 4, 3 figs., 5 refs.
Due to increased high mountain continentality from border of the West Carpathians inward three horizontal zones (intramountain zonality) were developed: the oak zone in the lowlands and border mountains, the beech zone and the coniferous zone in the centre of the West Carpathians. In the oak and beech zones tree forest belts were discerned: the oak (up to 550m), beech (up to 1250m) and spruce belts (up to timberline). In the most continental central zone the belts are deformed, the spruce dominates from the basin bottoms up to timberline. In the fluvial relief the forest belts transit continuously upward, but in the extremely formed karst and glacial relief the vegetation changes upward are irregular due to expressive vegetation inversions. To this day three climate and vegetation phenomena were registred: valley, slope and top phenomena. The basins, plateaus and deep mountain passes influence the landscape elements specifically, therefore we propose to introduce the terms "basin", "plateau" and "pass" phenomenon.
Key words: high mountain continentality, intramountain zonality, vegetation inversion, valley - slope - basin - plateau - pass phenomena
J. Oťaheľ: Aspects of integrated landscape research. Geografický časopis, 51, 1999, 4, 46 refs.
The correct knowledge of landscape as "a whole" requires application of various aspects of integrated research. The paper points at principles and significance of basic aspects of such research. The author regards system approach, especially geosystem and ecosystem aspects, as the primary condition of research of the material entity of landscape. These aspects are analysed from the view-point of construction of the geoecological structure as the matter-energy contents of landscape. Application of visual-spatial aspect by means of remote sensing data is emphasised. It is the first step of landscape physiognomy identification and contributes to integration of the qualities of the contents and appearance of landscape presented by land cover as a real landscape structure. Specification of the real structure of landscape from the functional-spatial aspect is proposed, particularly in the context of practical solutions. The quoted aspects of integrated landscape research are analysed also in terms of methodological procedures of landscape assessment in environmental planning and management.
Key words: landscape, land cover, land use, integrated landscape research, geoecological, visual and functional aspects
T. Hrnčiarová: Landscape-ecological planning by the means of the LANDEP methodology and the ECC methodology. Geografický časopis, 51, 1999, 4, 2 figs., 28 refs.
A new methodology of the ecological carrying capacity of (ECC methodology) was developed for the purposes of landscape-ecological planning. It consists of five basic steps: analysis, synthesis, interpretation, evaluation and proposals, which lead to assessment of the grades of carrying capacity and a proposal of sustainable landscape use. Carrying capacity is intepreted as a purpose-linked property of landscape, which expresses the rate of admissible (adequate) anthropic landscape use without disturbing and/or destroying the natural properties, processes and relation between the landscape (abiotic, biotic and socio-economic) elements and the environmental quality.
Key words: landscape-ecological planning, ecological carrying capacity, landscape structure, loading, vulnerability, significant of landscape, limits, unlimited activities, proposal of ecologically carrying capacity of landscape structure