Electronic Library of Scientific Literature
Volume 51 / No. 3 / 1999
J. Krcho: Modelling of georelief using DTM - the influence of point configuration of input points field on positional and numeric accuracy. Geografický časopis, 51, 3, 1999, 14 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs.
The accuracy of modelling of georelief and its geometric structure using DTM depends on the properties of input discrete points field of altitudes (DPFA) and on the properties of approximing functions used in DTM. The subject of this paper are the properties of input discrete points field of altitudes and their influence on the positional and numeric accuracies of modelling of individual georelief parameters from viewpoint of their interdisciplinary applications. The input discrete points field must fullfil two basic conditions: the condition of repre- sentativeness and the condition of correct mutual configuration of points of discrete points field from which the primary triangle net is derived. The value of positional shift of calculated data if the condition of correct configuration of points of input discrete point fields of altitude is not fulfilled is also presented.
Key words: set of morphometric georelief parameters, georelief geometric structure, representativeness, configuration, positional accuracy, numeric accuracy, primary triangels net, altitudes, slope of georelief, normal curvature, vertical curvature, horizontal curvature of georelief, normal forms, horizontal forms of georelief, total forms of georelief
J. Minár: Morphometric analysis of the fields and its utilization in geoecology. Geografický časopis, 51, 3, 1999, 34 refs.
The paper presents the hierarchic definition principle of unlimited amount of morphometric field parameters. The morphometric system of J. Krcho and M. Jenčo has been completed by the definition of new morphometric parameters interesting from the point of view of interpretation. Thez offer more effective utilization of georelief (its elementary landforms) as extrapolation factor in geoecological mapping. We define the geoecological gradient to be used for exact definition of elementary geoecological unit as a measure of the maximum local geoecological heterogeneity (homogeneity).
Key words: structural analysis of field, geoecological gradient, geoecology, factor analysis, elementary landforms
J. Pravda: Problems with delimitation of geographical cartography. Geografický časopis, 51, 1999, 3, 31 refs.
Geographical cartography is the part of cartography, which deals with the geographical maps. Within cartography the geographical cartography is one of the components of thematic cartography which is in turn the counterpart of geodesic cartography or topographic surveying. Classification of geographical cartography within geography is not known or it is rather unconvincing. However, there exist several not representative opinions, which consider cartography a part of geography. The contents of the term geographical cartography is developing in accord with the development of learning on geosphere, map expressing and map making. The term geographical cartography was introduced by K.A. Salischev in 1976 and it is frequented in Russia, Czechia and Slovakia. The development of the concept geographical cartography was influenced by the contents and development of the concept geographical map. Three trends are observable in the development of the contents of geographical cartography: continuity, conservation and disappearance.
Key words: geography and cartography, geographical map, geographical cartography
J. Feranec: Is geoinformatics the discipline of science? Geografický časopis, 51, 1999, 3, 1 fig., 12 refs.
Geoinformatics is the preferred phrase at the present time used to describe different human activities which apply the result of developments in modern computer and telecommunications technology. The term "geomatics" (the synonym - geoinformatics) was first used in 1975 by the French geodesist and photo- grammetrist Bernard Dubuisson. He used this term for denoting "the art, science and technologies involved in management of geographically referenced information, including its acquisition, storage, analysis and dissemination". Geoinformatics is partly described in other papers as a new spatially aimed information discipline and partly as an "umbrella" which has been adopted to encompass the disciplines of cadastre, surveying, mapping, remote sensing, and geographic information systems.
Key words: geomatics, geoinformatics, remote sensing, geographic information system, cartography
E. Mičietová: Quality, functions and operational possibilities of the GIS database. Geografický časopis, 51, 1999, 3, 3 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs.
The study presents the quality assessment criteria of geoinformation. Principles of interpretation and creation of geographical database are formulated and demonstrated. The study deals with structure, functions, and operational possibilities of geographical database. Its detailed analysis is indispensable for creation of criteria expressing the uncertainty rate of geoinformation generated by the database. The study is a follow-up to formulation of principles of geomatics and its approach to the increasing importance of geoinfomation in the decision-making processes.
Key words: GIS, geographical database, database structure, functions of geographical database, operational possibilities of geographical database, data quality, geographical database quality.
Rudolf Ondrášik, Vojtech Gajdoš, Helena Bánska
R. Ondrášik, V. Gajdoš, H. Bánska: Environmental risk assessment and environmental impact assessment. Geografický časopis, 51, 3, 1999, 5 figs., 10 refs.
The paper deals with assessment of risk resulting from interaction between a technical work and the environment. The problem is analysed systemically and the relation between the concepts of hazard and risk is emphasized. Hazard is interpreted as a qualitative character used for identification of facts and processes representing hazard for systems and their parts participating in interaction. Risk in turn is interpreted as a qualitative character which estimates the probability of identified hazards and the rate of their potential impact (damage) on both, active and passive interactive systems. Use of GIS in the process of risk assessment proved to be useful as it involves manipulation of big databases of the defined geographic information stratified in several semantic areas.
Key words: environmental risk assessment, geographical information system (GIS), hazard, vulnerability