Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press


Volume 37 / No. 1 / 2004



Endocrine Regulations (since 1967 to 1990 Endocrinologia Experimentalis) is an international journal on experimental and clinical endocrinology edited quarterly in English by care of the Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences (Bratislava, Slovakia) and published by the Slovak Academic Press (Bratislava, Slovakia).

This journal aims to publish original manuscripts or minireviews on experimental and clinical endocrinology and diabetes.

The submission of a manuscript to Endocrine Regulations implies that it has not been previously published or is not being submitted for publication elsewhere and that the manuscript has been approved by all authors who are ready to take public responsibility for the content.

All materials relating to human investigation will be published upon the understanding that design of the work has been approved by the local Ethical Committee or that it conforms to ethical guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. The animal experiments should state the conformance to guidelines on animal care.


Manuscripts in triplicate with three sets of illustrations (of which one is an original) should be sent to:

Richard Kvetnansky, Ph.D., Dr.Sc., Chief Editor,

Institute of Experimental Endocrinology,

Vlárska 3, 833 06 Bratislava, Slovakia

All text must be printed on one side of the sheet only with appropriate margins and double spacing to give adequate space for editorial notes. The corresponding author should indicate his/her full mailing address including phone and fax numbers and the e-mail address.

Manuscripts on disc. The submissions of manuscripts prepared on 3.5 inch discs on IBM compatible computers is encouraged, the preferred word processors being Microsoft Word. However, also in this case the disc must be accompanied by three hard copies of the manuscript. The disk should be labelled by the name of the first author, type of word processor, its version and file name and must also accompany the final version of the manuscript.

Types of manuscripts. Standard original papers should contain following sections: * Title, * Abstract (divided into sections Objective, Methods, Results, Conclusions), * Key Words, * Introduction, * Materials and Methods (in clinical papers this section should read * Subjects and Methods), * Results, * Discussion, (* Acknowledgements), * References. There is no length limit for these papers.

Minireviews should give an overview of a defined field preferably of author,s own professional interest and experience. They should not exceed 25 typed pages including complete References and should usually contain * Abstract, * Key Words, * Individual sections and subsections, * References.


Title page should give * the title of the article (main key words should be preferably included into the title to give sufficient information to allow the reader to judge the relevance of a paper to his field), * full names of authors, * institute of origin, * short title (running head), * name and full address of corresponding author including phone and fax numbers and e-mail naddress as well.

Abstract should clearly indicate the purpose of the study (Objective), basic procedures (Methods), main findings (Results) and principal conclusions (Conclusions). New and original findings should be emphasized, clearly defined and defended. The abstract must be easily understood indepenently of the full text of the paper

Key Words. Up to 8 key words (in exceptional cases even more) should be carefully selected to give appropriate information to the users of international information networks.

Introduction should give a brief overview of background informations and clearly define the purpose of the study...

Materials and Methods (in clinical manuscripts Subjects and Methods) should give full informations sufficient to allow others to repeat the work. It is recommended to divide it into subsections. Established and routine methods (if not considerably modified) should be just cited by the appropriate references, the modifications being briefly but clearly described. Statistical methods should be clearly described.

Results should describe concisely and clearly the results in logical sequence. Any interpretations should be avoided and definitely shifted to the Discussion. Do not repeat Materials and Methods, and do not repeat the data presented in tables and figures.

Discussion. Do not simply repeat the data presented in Introduction and Results section. Define and emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow. Relate results to other relevant studies, interpret them and explain the differences, if any. Working hypotheses and theories may be briefly outlined.

Acknowledgements. This short section, if necessary, contains acknowledgements of personal and/or financial assistance.

References. Begin this section on a new page. References should be assembled in alphabetical order according to the first author. More than one paper from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters a, b, c etc. placed after the year of publication. All listed references must be cited in the text by the first author et al. and the year (in a case of two authors only cite both). Following possibilities are recommended: (1) Brown and White (1993) found that ...; (2) ... as observed by Black et al. (1992); (3) ... as previously reported by several authors (Black et al. 1992; Brown and White 1993; Green et al. 1995).

The names of authors in the text and in references should be typed in small letters and underlined (e.g. White and Brown). The volume should be typed in bold.

The style for the list of references is as follows:

A.Journal Articles:

Itoh M, Okugawa T, Shiratori N, Ohashi H: Treatment with triiodothyronine (T3) against multinodular goiter fails to prevent the onset of Graves disease. Endocrine Regul 29, 151-156, 1995

B. Book Chapters:

Mornex R, Orgiazzi JJ: Hyperthyroidism. In: The Thyroid Gland (Ed. M de Visscher), pp. 279-362, Raven Press, New York 1980

C. Books:

Podoba J: Endemic goiter in Slovakia. VEDA, Bratislava, 1962

The statement “in press” may be used only for a paper accepted for publication in the indicated journal. Unpublished data or Personal communication may be used in the text, but must not be listed in References.

Tables should be constructed as simply as possible, typed on separate sheets and numbered consecutively with Arabic numeral. There should be a short and descriptive heading and appropriate footnotes. Not more than 4 vertical rows should be used in a table planned to occupy one column and not more than 8-10 rows for that designed for two columns of a page.

Figures should be prepared in proportional way with lettering of appropriate size in order to permit such reduction in size to occupy either one or two columns on the page. Drawings (graphs, charts, diagrams etc.) should be submitted either as original or camera ready glossy photographs. Computer generated graphs must be printed by high quality laser printers on high quality camera ready paper. High quality photographs should be submitted on glossy paper.

Units of Measurement. Results should be expressed in SI units.

Abbreviations. Non-standard abbreviations should be properly defined in the text the first time they are used.


There are no page charges. Reprints order forms are sent to the corresponding author together with galley proofs. Color illustrations may be published for extra charges.


J. Luis Quintanar1, Eva Salinas2, Rosa María Chávez-Morales1, Andrés Quintanar-Stephano1

1 Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and 2Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Microbiology. Centro de Ciencias Básicas. Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, México, E-mail: jlquinta@correo.uaa.mx

Objective. The protein SNAP-25 is located in the plasma membrane and is known to participate in hormone exocytosis process. In the present work we studied the role of SNAP-25 on LH secretion in permeabilized adenohypophyseal cultured cells. The question of whether GnRH regulates SNAP-25 expression in adenohypophyseal cultured cells and in the adenohypophyses in vivo was also investigated.
Methods. In digitonin-permeabilized cells incubated with anti-SNAP-25, stimulated LH secretion with Ca2+ was analysed. The presence and expression of SNAP-25 in adenohypophyseal cultured cells incubated with GnRH and in adenohypophyses of orchidectomized rats with GnRH administration was studied by immunochemistry and immunoblotting.
Results. Immunochemical study revealed that SNAP-25 was present in cultured adenohypophyseal cells and in adenohypophysis of orchidectomized rats both with GnRH treatment. We found that LH secretion can be blocked by antobodies raised against SNAP-25 in permeabilized cells. Likewise, GnRH administration induced a significant decrease of SNAP-25 expression in cultured adenohypophyseal cells and in adenohypophysis of orchidectomized rats.
Conclusion. Our study showed that SNAP-25 is present in adenohypophyses in vitro as well as in vivo and that is involved in LH release and that GnRH can modify its expression.
Key words: Gonadotrophs – Immunohistochemistry – Immunoblot – Permeabilized cells – Digitonin


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Amelioration by Active Hexose Correlated Compound of Endocrine Disturbances Induced by Oxidative Stress IN the Rat

She-Fang Ye, K. Wakame1, K. Ichimura, S. Matsuzaki

Department of Biochemistry, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi, 321- 0293 Japan; 1Amino U P Chemical, Ltd, Sapporo, 0049-0839 Japan, E-mail: matuzaki@dokkyomed.ac.jp

Objective. Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), an extract derived from fungi of Basidiomycetes family, has been found to be a potent antioxidant. Since the secretion of some hormones can be affected by reactive oxygen species, the objective of this study was to examine how ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA), which generates hydroxyl radicals in vivo, modulates the hormone secretion and the effects of AHCC.
Methods. AHCC at 3 % in drinking water was given to male rats for one week, and the animals were decapitated at different time intervals after the treatment with FeNTA intraperitoneally. Serum levels of hormones (corticosterone, testosterone, thyroxine and triiodothyronine), adrenal ascorbic acid as well as changes in hepatic oxidative status were evaluated by immunoassay and spectrometry.
Results. Serum corticosterone levels increased significantly following FeNTA treatment, while AHCC reduced the increased levels to normal. Adrenal ascorbic acid levels that reflect ACTH secretion, were decreased by FeNTA and restored to normal by AHCC. Serum levels of testosterone and thyroxine (T4) decreased rapidly after FeNTA treatment, while AHCC pretreatment prevented this fall. Serum triiodothyroxine (T3) levels remained unchanged either by FeNTA or AHCC treatment. The hepatic oxidized glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes and also serum lipid peroxide were greatly enhanced after FeNTA treatment. All of these changes were restored to normal by AHCC pretreatment.
Conclusion. FeNTA induces various endocrine disorders and AHCC ameliorates these effects by acting as an antioxidant.
Key words: Oxidative stress – Corticosterone – Testosterone – Thyroid hormone – Fungi extract – Endocrine disorders

ENDOCRINE REGULATIONS, Vol. 38, 7–13, 2004

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Ewa L. Gregoraszczuk1, Anna Ptak1, Anna K.Wojtowicz1, Tatiana Gorska2, Krzysztof W. Nowak2

1 Laboratory of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland; 2 Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, August Cieszkowski University of Agriculture, Poznan, Poland, E-mail: greg@zuk.iz.uj.edu.pl

Objective. To determine the levels of leptin in the follicular fluid and using culture of whole ovarian follicles, to test the hypothesis that leptin may directly influence GH and IGF-I stimulated ovarian function.
Methods. Porcine follicles were recovered from ovaries during early, middle, and preovulatory stage of the follicular phase of the estrus cycle. They were cultured in the presence of the recombinant ovine leptin (oLEP) added either alone or with oGH or hIGF-I. Steroid concentrations in the media were determined after 48 h of culture
Results. The respective values for leptin in follicular fluid from small, medium and large follicles were 1.98, 2.18 and 1.96 ng/ml, respectively. Leptin added alone at a dose of 2 ng/ml had no effect on basal steroid secretion by small and medium follicles. However, in small follicles a synergic action of GH and IGF-I was noted. Leptin did not influence the secretion of progesterone by follicles collected during the early and middle follicular phases. In preovulatory follicles, leptin added alone to the culture media caused a decrease in basal estradiol secretion with a concomitant increase in progesterone secretion. Moreover, it acted synergistically with IGF-I and GH causing further stimulation of progesterone secretion.
Conclusions. The presented data show a direct, maturation dependent action of leptin on GH and IGF-I stimulated follicular steroidogenesis. During follicular growth they acted synergistically with GH and IGF-I in estradiol production, while in preovulatory follicles, they acted with both investigated hormones in luteinization process, which starts before follicular disruption.
Key words: Leptin – Estrus cycle – GH – IGF-I – Steroid secretion – Porcine follicles

ENDOCRINE REGULATIONS, Vol. 38, 15–21, 2004

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Monika Orlowska-Majdak

Department of Experimental and Clinical Physiology, Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, 92-215 Lodz, Poland, E-mail: morlowska@zdn.am.lodz.pl

Objectives. A few compounds function as the excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters in the central nervous system (CNS), but glutamate (Glu) is the most important. Data on Glu participation in the control of vasopressinergic (AVP-ergic) and oxytocinergic (OXT-ergic) neuronal activity have been collected mainly on the basis of observations of hypothalamic AVP-ergic and OXT-ergic neurons. In vivo and in vitro experiments have demonstrated that Glu enhances bioelectric activity of the aforementioned neurons and increases AVP and OXT release. However, inhibitory effect of Glu on AVP-ergic neurons, mediated by local GABA-ergic interneurons, is also possible. Both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors participate in EAA effect on AVP-ergic and OXT-ergic neurons. EAA involvement in AVP and OXT release after osmotic stimuli and in OXT release during the milk ejection reflex has been demonstrated. Recent findings demonstrated that EAA enhanced AVP release into the extracellular fluid of hippocampus in the rabbit.
Key words: Vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurons – Excitatory amino acids – Hypothalamus – Hippocampus – Glutamate

ENDOCRINE REGULATIONS, Vol. 38, 23–28, 2004

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P. Nezbedova, J. Brtko

Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 833 06 Bratislava, Slovakia

Objectives. Vitamin D is considered multifunctional steroid hormone that modulates calcium homeostasis through actions predominantly in kidney, bone and the intestinal tract. Nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a specific nuclear protein, a member of steroid hormone receptor superfamily. The amino acid sequence of the VDR shows a significant homology with other members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, including receptors for glucocorticoids (GR), oestrogen (ER), androgen (AR), progesteron (PR), thyroid hormone (T3R), retinoic acid (RAR), retinoid X (RXR) and over 150 orphan receptors. VDR is known to mediate the pleiotropic biological actions of 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 through its ability to modulate the expression of target genes. VDR upon binding 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates specific gene transcription predominantly by binding as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) to DNA enhancer sequence, termed the vitamin D-responsive element (VDRE) that is present within the promoter region of vitamin D-controlled genes. The VDR has been shown to associate with several additional molecules to form the active transcriptional complex required for gene regulation. The regulation of this ligand-activated cellular transcription factor occurs at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels. This article summarizes a variety of effects of 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, acting through its cognate nuclear receptor, and its use in chemotherapy and chemoprevention of cancer.
Key words: Vitamin D3 – Nuclear receptors – Mechanism of action – Gene expression

ENDOCRINE REGULATIONS, Vol. 38, 29–38, 2004

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