Electronic Library of Scientific Literature


Volume 33 / No. 1 / 1999



J. Lebl, A. Sediva, H. Frisch, S. Riedl, E. Balzar, H. Krasnicanova

Department of Paediatrics, 3rd Faculty of Medicine,
1st Department of Paediatrics and
Institute of Clinical Immunology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Objective. To evaluate the effect of growth hormone treatment on growth, levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and lymphocyte subsets in immunosuppressed renal allograft recipients.
Methods. 18 children (aged 8.0-16.6 years) received growth hormone 1 IU/Kg/week daily for two years. Height, IGF-I levels and in 11/18 patients, lymphocyte subsets were evaluated serially.
Results. Standardized growth velocity increased from -1.0±1.5 to +1.2±2.2 and standardized IGF-I levels from +0.8±1.5 to +3.1±1.1 (1 year) and to +1.4±1.7 (2 years). The total lymphocyte count and the number of T lymphocytes (CD3+) decreased. The decrease was more marked in CD8+ (from 1.5±0.3 x109/L to 0.9±0.3 x109/L, 1 year and to 0.8±0.1 x109/L, 2 years) compared to CD4+ (from 1.5±0.3 x109/L to 1.0±0.2 x109/L, 1 year and to 1.3±0.2 x109/L, 2 years), resulting in an increment of the CD4+/CD8+ index.
Conclusions. The differential effect of growth hormone treatment on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes might be explained by different expression of the IGF-I receptor in these distinct subsets.

Key words: Growth hormone - Renal transplantation - IGFI - Lymphocyte subsets - Children
pp. 3-8

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M. Tajtakova, J. Capova, J. Bires, E. Sebokova, J. Petrovicova, P. Langer

1st Clinic of Internal Medicine and
1st Clinic of Gynecology and
Institute of Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, P.J. Safarik University, 049 66 Kosice, Slovakia;
Clinical Laboratory, University of Veterinary Medicine, Kosice;
Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava

Objective. To estimate thyroid volume (ThV) in primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) mothers (MO) and their newborns (NB) as related to their urinary iodine and thus contribute to the question on the interrelation between iodine intake during the pregnancy and thyroid function in pregnant women.
Methods. The ThV by ultrasound was estimated in a total of 258 MO (108 PP and 150 MP)) and their newborns on the 4th-7th day after delivery. There were 227 in term and 31 preterm (before 37th week) deliveries. In addition, ThV was estimated in double amount of controls (216 vs. PP and 300 vs. MP) in the same age range and nearly age matched which were either nulliparous or did not have delivery within last 12 months.
Urinary iodine concentration was estimated in spot urine samples obtained from 75 MO and their NB and milk iodine in 44 milk samples obtained between the 4th and 7th day after delivery.
Results. On the first week after delivery, the ThV in all 258 MO was significantly higher than that in 516 of nearly age matched females (mean±S.D.: 14.87±4.93 ml vs. 10.61±4.02 ml, resp., P<0.01). Although the ThV was lower in 108 PP than in 150 MP women (mean±S.D.: 13.85±4.51 ml vs. 15.59±5.11 ml, resp., P<0.01), it was still significantly higher (P<0.01) than that in a double amount of nearly age matched controls for PP (9.96±3.15 ml) and MP (11.07±4.48 ml).
Mean ThV found in all 258 NB was 0.60±0.21 ml (median 0.5 ml, range 0.2-1.6 ml), the values in those born in term being higher than in preterms (mean±S.D. 0.62±0.20 ml vs. 0.45±0.12 ml; P<0.01). No correlation was found between the ThV and body weight in NB. However, significant correlation was found between the ThV in all 257 NO and their NB (r=0.292, P<0.05).
The mean value of urinary iodine in mothers on the first week after delivery was 9.0±7.2 µg/dl (median 6.1, range 3.0-47.2). The average urinary iodine in primiparous was slightly higher than that in multiparous mothers (10.3 vs. 8.4 µg/dl; not significant). In newborns, the mean urinary iodine in the first week after birth was 11.6±7.6 µg/dl (median 6.5, range 0.745.0).
Conclusions. The finding of about 30 % higher ThV in 258 mothers after delivery than that in double amount of nearly age matched women (P<0.01) who were either nulliparous or did not have delivery at least within last 12 months shows that, in spite of general satisfactory iodine intake in Slovak population, the iodine intake during pregnancy was not satisfactory. This is supported by the data on urinary iodine which was higher in primiparous than in multiparous women.

Key words: Thyroid volume - Ultrasound - Mothers - Newborns - Urinary iodine - Human milk iodine
pp. 9-15

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M. Karbownik, H. Modrzejewska, A. Gesing, J. Greger, A. Lewinski

Department of Thyroidology, Institute of Endocrinology and
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Poland

Objective. To examine thymidine kinase (TK - ATP: thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC activity in homogenates of rat thyroid lobes incubated in vitro with epidermal growth factor (EGF).
Methods. The thyroid lobes were collected from euthyroid, hypothyroid and/or hyperthyroid animals. Hypothyroidism was developed in the experimental rats by an administration of 0.1 % solution of propylthiouracil (PTU) in drinking water for 2 weeks, while hyperthyroidism was obtained by daily i.p. injections of L-thyroxine (50 µg/kg, B.W.), also for 2 weeks. After collecting, the thyroids were incubated for 4 hours in RPMI 1640 medium with an addition of 20 mM of Hepes buffer, 15% FCS, penicillin (200 U/ml), streptomycin (10 µg/ml) and with EGF (Sigma) (0.1 ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, 1000 ng/ml). The control lobes were incubated without any addition of EGF to the medium. TK activity was expressed as the amount of reaction products, measured by ascending chromatography.
Results. 1. in the absence of EGF, TK activity in the homogenates of thyroid lobes from hypothyroid rats was lower, while it was higher in the lobes from hyperthyroid animals, when compared to these obtained from euthyroid controls; 2. EGF in the concentration of 0.1 ng/ml or 1000 ng/ml decreased, while that in the concentration of 10 ng/ml increased TK activity in lobes collected from euthyroid or hyperthyroid rats; 3. in the tissue collected from hypothyroid rats, the addition of EGF (0.1 ng/ml or 10 ng/ml) caused a slight increase in TK activity versus hypothyroid controls - a tendency towards diminishing TK activity could be observed as parallel to increasing EGF concentration.
Conclusions. TK activity in the homogenates of rat thyroid lobes depends on the functional thyroid status and on applied EGF concentration in vitro.

Key words: Hypothyroidism - Hyperthyroidism - Rat thyroid - Thymidine kinase - EGF
pp. 17-23

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T. Harder, A. Rake, W. Rohde, G. Doerner, A. Plagemann

Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Humboldt University Medical School (Charité), 10098 Berlin, Germany

Objective. Since the offspring of gestational diabetic mothers (GD) is at increased risk to develop obesity and diabetogenic disturbances later in life, while pathophysiological mechanisms responsible are unclear, to investigate long-term consequences of neonatal hyperinsulinism occurring characteristically in GD offspring.
Methods. Newborn Wistar rats received daily subcutaneous injections of a long-acting insulin from the 8th to 11th day of life (IRI), while in controls (CO) NaCl was applicated. Body weight was recorded throughout life. Glucose tolerance test was performed on the 140th day of life (1.5 g/kg glucose injected i.p. after an overnight fast and blood samples were taken up to 90 min from retroorbital plexus). On the 240th day of life, the vulnerability to a single "subdiabetogenic" dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 25 mg/kg body weight) was tested. Blood samples for estimating glucose levels were taken before STZ, and subsequently on days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after STZ.
Results. IRI rats developed overweight during juvenile life until adulthood (P<0.001), characterized by a clear elevation of the Lee obesity index (P<0.005), and associated with basal hyperglycaemia (P<0.05), hyperinsulinaemia (P<0.05), as well as an increased insulin/glucose-ratio as a measure of insulin resistance (P<0.005). Impaired glucose tolerance occurred in early adulthood, and increased vulnerability to a "subdiabetogenic" dose of streptozotocin (see above), leading to significant hyperglycaemia (P<0.05), was evaluated in the 9th month of age. Accompanied by a transient reduction of hyperinsulinaemia during a period of 21 days, Lee obesity index and insulin/glucose-ratio decreased significantly after STZ treatment in IRI rats (P<0.01).
Conclusions. Overweight and increased diabetes susceptibility in adulthood due to temporary hyperinsulinism during a critical period of postnatal life are suggested to be a consequence of acquired dysregulation and overstimulation, respectively, of the pancreatic insulin secretion in rats.

Key words: Perinatal hyperinsulinism - Overweight - Insulin resistance - Streptozotocin - Diabetes susceptibility
pp. 25-31

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R.Tz. Denkova, B. Nikolov, A. Russinova

Institute of Experimental Morphology and Anthropology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Objective. To extend our previous observations of granulosa cell conditioned medium inhibition on basal and FSH-stimulated progesterone secretion by granulosa cells from large porcine antral follicles.
Methods. Granulosa cell conditioned media (SGCCM) were obtained from cultures of granulosa cells which were harvested from small porcine antral follicles. SGCCM were fractionated by filtration through an Amicon XM-50 and an PM-10 membrane.
Results. Two fractions - XM-50 filtrate (<50 kDa) and PM-10 retentate (10-50 kDa) - exhibited well expressed inhibitory effect on the progesterone secretion from large follicle granulosa cells in vitro. Such inhibitory effect was fully prevented by heat treatment, partially inactivated by trypsin digestion (P<0.05), but was resistant to several freeze-thaw cycles and storage at -20 or -70 oC for up to one year.
Conclusions. It is suggested that SGCCM contains some regulatory substance(s) capable of inhibiting progesterone secretion by cultured granulosa cells and that the molecular weight of such substance is presumably between 10-50 kDa.

Key words: Granulosa cells - Tissue culture - Progesterone secretion - Inhibitory substance
pp. 33-37

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P. Langer

Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 833 06 Bratislava, Slovakia

Although the goitre seems to be well defined at least from clinical point of view, it is virtually impossible to find the precise definition of the opposite side of what should be the normal thyroid as concerns its size, histological structure and namely the level of growth stimulation by the external factors (such as TSH) and intrinsic tissue growth factors. Theoretically, the normal thyroid should be able to cover the requirements of the organism for the hormone in a reasonably large range without being stimulated to grow by any external or internal factors.
So far, the search for normal thyroid has been conducted by several ways: 1. by post mortem thyroid weight, 2. by palpation, 3. by ultrasound. As based on post mortem thyroid weight, until the middle of this century a typical thyroid gland was considered to be about 20-25 g with the accepted upper normal size of 30 g, while more recent studies in iodine replete population have reported mean weights of about 10 g and an upper normal size 20 g. According to several classifications for thyroid palpation the unpalpable thyroid should be allotted to the Grade 0 which is defined as "normal gland", "no goiter at all", "absence of goiter" etc.
The first recommendation of normal thyroid volume for children and adolescents as estimated by ultrasound has been developed by Gutekunst and Teichert (1994). However, this was later challenged by the findings of considerable number of thyroid volumes which were higher than the upper limit of that recommendation as found in the countries with satisfactory values of urinary iodine (Delange et al. 1997). Nevertheless, recently it appeared that about 10-15 percent of adolescent thyroids show increased thyroid growth rate which significantly differs from the majority and which might be related to different tuning of molecular growth mechanism presumably of genetic origin (Tajtakova et al. 1998; Langer et al., in press). From, this follows that a certain number of enlarged thyroids apparently should not be included into a normal range.

Key words: Goiter - Normal thyroid - Thyroid and sex - Ultrasound - Iodine
pp. 39-45

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