Electronic Library of Scientific Literature
Volume 44 / No. 6 / 1996
In the paper we have analyzed the specific market configuration in which
the producer is a monopoly and the trade cartelizes through the level of
trade margin. We have focused on three the most probable variants of producer
and trade behaviour formulating the pricing strategy as follows:
1) trade sets such margin tariffs as to maximize the volume of margin,
2) trade sets such margin tariffs so that the volume of trade margin would be equal to the profit volume + fixed costs of a producer,
3) producer sets (recommends) such margin tariffs so that the volume of trade margin and profit volume + fixed costs of a producer would be maximum considering that the volume would be divided between trade and producer proportionally.
In all three model cases we have considered that the rate of VAT is constant and the margin tariffs are variable. Considering the mentioned market configuration and the variants of producer and trade behaviour we had derived at first the methodological procedure of solution which was applied at the simulated market. On the basis of theoretical analysis we have reached the following conclusions:
a) In all the three model cases we have found that the amount of margin tariffs is a function of demand elasticity and this dependence is proportional indirectly. These interrelations were formulated explicitly.
b) The least productive behaviour of all the market subjects is that one in which trade maximizes the volume of margin.
c) The most productive behaviour is that one when the monopoly (producer) determines (recommends) the amount of margin tariffs on the basis of derived principles, i. e. the amount of trade margin is a function of demand elasticity.
The paper presents an introduction to the problems of econometric modelling at the corporate and industry levels. Corporate simulation models are analyzed and described. Some known industrial models are mentioned. Some Slovak econometric models are described. A model of a company, producing furniture, is introduced. The model uses 27 variables (three of them are exogenous) and consists of 9 equations and one identity. Methods of solving and results are shown. The second wide field of econometric modelling on the mentioned level are models of specific partial economic problems, often using pooled, longitunidal and panel data.
In the first part of the paper the author defines the place of direct investment within the forms of foreign market entry and finds its connection to the development and application of the principles of international marketing. In the further part of the article she discusses the effects of the direct foreign investments both in mother and host countries and pays a special attention to the relationship of a foreign investor to the host country. In the third part of the paper the author - being experienced in the activities of foreign investors in the Slovak Republic - defines both positive and negative effects of direct foreign investments upon a transition economy. The fourth and final part of the paper deals with the question of increasing the attraction of the Slovak investment environment for foreign investors.
Development of the society is conditioned by the process of democratization
and decentralization and greatly increases the significance of the local
management, this playing ever more important role in resolving economic
problems as well. Its importance is a result of the central directive system
and endogenous factors of development. With the increasing commitment of
citizen to the economic decision-making process and with the ever more
stressed local governments role of management and coordination, the local
governments can make active the endogenous development factors. In the
developed economies the processes have lead to the local development policy
enforcement, as the policy is able to motivate the local communities and
to join them in resolving local problems.
Considering the sphere represented by all the subjects interested in its development (local government bodies, business units, citizen association and iniciative movements), a non-substitutable role is played by the local government organs. Local government is related to the community of a village, a town or of a region and makes a basis and a subject of the communal policy.
Changes in the society of the Slovak Republic realized after 1990 introduced the self-government principle of their management again which gives the communal policy new contents and dimension. The complexity of the conditions under which our self-government bodies work at the local level have a direct connection with the status and significance of local policy in the development of the society. The changing environment given by the changes of the organization structure of public administration presents a change to accept a system of communal policy that would guarantee a dynamic development of our towns and villages. Not to make use of this fact would mean fixing the status and problems of the sphere which would result in weakening the management self-government role and in lowering the innovation and development role of the local level.
Romuald BERTL - Iveta PROSTREDNIK
Taxation of individuals and legal entities making business in Slovakia
is regulated by a single act - the Act on Income Tax. In Austria the taxation
of individuals is regulated by the Act on Income Tax, taxation of legal
entities is regulated by the Act on the Legal Entities Taxation.
The comparison of the legal regulation of tax-duty in Austria and in Slovakia shows that a legal entity of public trading company is excluded from income tax in both countries, capital companies, on the other hand, are not. A clear difference is evident in the case of limited partnership companies. Rules of the determination of unrestricted and restricted tax duty are similar in both countries as for individuals and there are some differences in case of legal entities.
There is a different approach to the definition of the volume of taxable incomes in each country. In Slovakia, as well as in Austria, there are certain incomes that are tax exempted. In Austria, incomes are classified into enterprise and non-enterprise incomes which is an important factor since the income volume is in the case of enterprise and non-enterprise incomes determined differently. There is no similar classification in Slovakia.
In both countries there are three ways of tax-basis calculation (Slovakia) or profit determination (Austria), respectively, namely in the case of tax-payers accounting in the double-entry system, those using single-entry system and in the case of tax-payers using the so-called lump-system.