Electronic Library of Scientific Literature
Volume 45 / No. 5 / 1997
In the paper the author justifies the need to prepare the complete prognosis
of Slovakia development and, simultaneously, informs on methodological
approaches which were used at the preparation of the project for this prognosis
reaching to 2015 that is solved at the Institution of Prognoses of the
Slovak Academy of Sciences.
The need of the prognostic seeing is especially acute in present conditions of turbulent changes that effected not only Slovakia but, practically, the whole world, in connection with globe involving tendencies, radical technological changes, and the need of the strategic re-orientation activated by the extinction of the bipolar world. In our country, naturally, in relation to the transformation of the society.
The paper describes shortly the newest methodological breakthrough in the area of the world prognoses, points out to our own experiences in the discipline. It underlines, especially, the need of the active approach at the formation of future. From the methodological viewpoint it stresses, mainly, the concept of possible alternative future and certain space for the option of required feasible future. For its implementation it is inevitable to conclude this image of the possible future also by strategic subject of its accomplishment, and it is the integral part of prognostic consideration.
In the last but one part of the paper the author makes acquainted the reader with the project structure of the overall prognosis of Slovakia, broken down into thirteen subsystems which characterise both the external and internal context of the Slovakia system. The following subsystems can be found in the external context: demographic dynamics of the world, basic geopolitical relations, global environmental problems, new technology and its impact on the socio-economic system, and development trends of the world economy. The internal context includes eight basic subsystems: the demographic development, facilities in the territory, the economic system, environmental problems, social aspects of the development, the value system, and the institutional system.
In the conclusion the author claims that, equally, as at the first prognosis of Slovakia, nor this prognosis can be the work of the comparatively small team of one institution, and that the participation of the wide circuit of specialists will be inevitable. Finally, he expresses the requirement that after the termination of the present project the prognostic activity should acquire the permanent character, no by that that the prognosis will be repeatedly prepared in new variants, but by the fact that the continuos monitoring of development in Slovakia will be carried out, in its individual aspects, on basis of which the strategic visions should be made more precise.
The management theory (scientific branch) is characterised as accumulated
and, according to certain viewpoint, logically organised knowledge which
consists of the set of management principles, methods, and procedures prepared
on basis of empirical approach and results of various scientific branches.
The management theory (scientific branch) has this special features: it is practice oriented science, it has interdisciplinary character, it is subject of study all the world round, and the existence of the comparative management results from that.
When specifying the management theory one has to come out from the management system of the organisation. Its basis (the core) is the management process which represents various activities carried out by managers. Gradually, various explanations of the management process were developed and by that the management theory content as well. The best known are the following ones: according to the process or functional viewpoint, as the interaction of people, on the decision-making basis, in the form of the information process, by means of the system of mathematics models. These or, the following approaches to the management theory are the self-standing theories without mutual interconnection, but they create part of one logically organised management theory. Only the synthesis of results from scientific branches and practice may provide the total picture of the management process and its theory.
Knowledge relating to the management process and the management theory has various tasks at their formation. According to that they are divided to four groups which create: firstly, the content of the management process, secondly, they represent resources for the process refinement and the management theory, thirdly, they represent the main approach used researching and solution of individual problems of management and management generally, fourthly, they represent outputs (statements) of management for practical purposes.
The content of the management process and, simultaneously, the management theory is characterised by three mutually connected an overlapped partial processes (subsystems), decomposed according to these viewpoints: from the functional viewpoint, from the decision-making viewpoint, and from information viewpoint. The starting point and the basis for the definition of the management process and the management theory can be found in its functional viewpoint that comes out from functions of the management (planning, organising, leading, inspection). The presented partial processes (subsystems) are conjunctive ones.
The main resources of knowledge supporting the management improvement and its theory development are the following ones: empirical approach, science (behaviourists theories, information theories, mathematics-statistic theory, and the others), and technology.
Special task in the management theory belongs to basic approaches used for the examination of individual problems of management and management generally. It is very important to respect and implement the systems approach and the contingent approach.
Outputs (statements) of the management theory can have double character, it means, descriptive one that means the description of that situation how the managers behave in the organisation or, how they react to arisen situation and how the proceed, and normative one (prescription) which gives the answer to it how we should behave, or what we should do when we want to reach the goal. Process of the management should be refined in real way because of that, in future, the output of the management should be as normative as possible.
The fall of communism and introduction of the market economies were
followed by the rapid changes in the production structures of the transition
economies. Manufacturing, the most important part of the centrally planned
economies, was quickly replaced by the services sector. Among the service
industries, international tourism was the most rapidly growing one. This
growth was supported by the favourable political environment. Removal of
the Iron Curtain and the passport and visa barriers enabled large influx
of the Western tourists. Central Europe became the fastest growing tourist
region in Europe. Growth in the international tourism was reflected in
the growth in the international tourist receipts. The shares of these receipts
rose significantly over the period 1989-1995, up to 6.7 % in the Czech
Republic and 3.7 % in Slovakia.
The government support of the industry was weak. State sponsoring of the marketing abroad was limited and the state subsidises for the tourism development programs were low. On the other hand, there were no major regulations able to limit the industry"s growth. The tourism industry had to rely on the market forces. It was the most privatised part of the national economies. There were numerous small and medium enterprises and plenty of competition. Owing to the liberal concept of development, the tourism industry developed rapidly.
International tourists receipts came in the right time to the right place in the transition economies. Jobs created in the tourism industry helped to replace at least some jobs lost in manufacturing. Many regions damaged by the industry decline and the disarmament programs started to develop tourism programs. International tourists receipts also were of major importance for the balances of payments in the transition economies. Tourism income helped to offset the deficits in the trade balances. International tourists receipts were particularly important for the Slovak Republic in 1993. In that year, the new republic desperately needed to boost its international currency reserves. International tourism was able to deliver a major part of cash reserves.
International tourism expenditure was quite low in period 1989-1993, mostly owing to the declines in the standard of living and rising unemployment rate. Since 1994, the economic revival has started and the international tourism expenditure started to growth. Its level, however, has been still far behind the levels in the Western Europe.
There are good chances for the further growth of the tourism industry in the transition economies. The transition countries have a rich natural and culture heritage and an advantageous location in the Europe's heart. The numbers of the international tourists are likely to growth in the future. As for the international tourist receipts, the situation is a little bit different. The previous growth in the tourist receipts relied and the unique factors, as removal of the Iron Curtain and introduction of a market economy. The driving force of these factors seems to be exhausted, The time has come for implementing qualitative changes in the tourism industry, as improvements in the tourism infrastructure, vocational training, establishing regional tourist bodies, etc.
"The Polluter pays principle" followed by most countries of
the OECD, has been adopted in the Slovak Environmental Policy. The costs
of reducing ongoing pollution and meeting regulatory requirements are regarded
as the responsibility of the polluter. On the other hand the recovery process
in CEE countries can not take full advantage of policies based on the Polluter
Pays Principle. Thus financing via the environmental fund can serve as
a compromise. The State Environmental fund of the Slovak Republic (SEF
SR) was founded in March 1991 and it provides direct grants only. No other
forms of subsidies are employed yet. Allocation of the funds is based rather
on political decision than efficiency and the demand for financing always
exceeds the capacity of donors.
This paper is analysing present state of the environmental financing practice in the Slovak Republic and proposes modification of the organisational structure, selection and evaluation procedure of the SEF SR. Together with revolving principle with investor's participation in decision making process tends to increase funds technological, environmental, organisational and economical efficiency and thus help to accumulate financial sources to finance environmental recovery and investment into environmental technologies.