Electronic Library of Scientific Literature
Volume 45 / No. 1 / 1997
An Animated economy is a computer aided virtual system consisted from
several agents and institutions. In other word it is a set of virtualised
economic agents and a set of restriction on agent's behaviours in uncertain
environment. Its role is to allow agents to coexist in shared uncertain
environment in such a way that all system is able live (i.g. survive) and/or
evolve in steady state for a long time. The second best role of this virtual
economy is to allow agents pursue their respective goals in the presence
of other agents in such a mode that whole system not come to sharp conflict
with state of Pareto optima.
This article argues that animated economy can play a decisive role in the holistic compatibility between micro- and macro-economics. This is because of integration of ontogenetical, phylogenetical and sociogenetical learning by evolution in economic systems and learning by succession in their environment. I propose this animated economic system as an artificial means to be able to run several computer simulations of economic experiments on the basis of real dates and under minimised subjective prejudice of experimentator. The output of such experiments may be used for several useful economic generalisations.
My methodology I was been beginning to create in past sixties. (Because I was formerly the officer in antiaircraft rackets division in army) it was built on the theory of pursuing. Immediately, as sun as the middle of seventies I understand that I have to do with the knowledge and methodology of mathematical biology and ecology. At present I am trying integrate that methodology with autopoiesis, synergetics and first of all with theory of artificial intelligence and with theory of neural networks.
The article formulates the basic theoretical starting points and principles
of transformation of financing higher education in the Slovak Republic
from the aspect of diversifying traditional and non-traditional financial
sources for higher education and participation of individual subjects engaged
The present social changes have a full impact on the schooling system as well, not excluding the higher education institutions. Financial means expended on education are usually regarded traditionally, as social expenditure, which through social division are used in the spiritual-cultural sphere for education out of sources formed in the material-production sphere. Economically, these financial means are viewed as consumption. This economic aspect is, however, but a part of formation of sources for education. A complex evaluation ought to take into consideration the fact, that education in undoubtedly the most important part of creating qualified work force. Through acquiring the needed education, the basic preconditions are created for performing a qualified, namely more complicated work.
Education and erudition have particular significance also in the sphere of increasing the productivity of work, namely in all branches of the national economy, i.e. in non-material branches as well. Education and learning become increasingly the subject matter not only of social interest, but also of personal interest of individuals. The level of education acquired is becoming a decisive criterion of finding an ambitious job and job position.
Many regions in Slovakia suffer from declining heavy industry, underdevelopment or peripheral location. Slovakia, as a potential member of the EU, could expect to receive aid from Structural Funds and a large part of these would be allocated to tourism industry. Tourism is a very promising regional development factor, but a lack of tourism management and marketing bodies limits development of a modern tourism industry. The paper presents a model of regional tourism management for Slovakia. The model includes: (1) the goals of regional tourism development, (2) regional tourism policies and (3) the system of 7 regional tourist bodies. This research was undertaken with support from the European Commission's Phare ACE Programme, 1995. The tourism development model is based on experiences of the DG XXIII.
The main aim of this article is definition and characteristics of bonds
and description of development of primary and secondary bond markets in
Slovakia since 1990. The rules governing the treatment of bonds and other
securities in Slovakia are contained in the Act 600/1992 Coll. - Securities
Act and in the Act 530/1990 Coll. on Bonds, as amended. The bonds (other
than FNM bonds) may be traded solely at the BCPB market through BCPB members.
The gradual interest of companies in alternative financial sources obtained through bond issues, which has become particularly evident since 1993, is also due to the developments with respect to the interest rate on loans and the return on bonds. Bonds, which have been a rarely used source of financing, are becoming more and more appealing on the capital market, both for companies and the State. The evolution described above is evidenced showing the developments in the interest rates on medium-term loans compared with the return on bonds issued by companies for the last three years.
The overall volume of bonds issued so far, which were negotiable on the Slovak capital market on December 31, 1996, was SKK 119,3 billion (of which SKK 51,66 billion are government bonds, SKK 33,2 billion FNM bonds, SKK 20,13 billion corporate bonds, SKK 13,17 billion bank bonds and SKK 1,18 billion municipal bonds). The bond transactions on the secondary market are carried out through BCPB and RMS (FNM bond). The share of bond transactions on the overall deals on the secondary capital market was quite variable - 46 % in 1993 (SKK 77 million), 14 % in 1994 (SKK 855 million), 38 % in 1995 (SKK 15 338 million), and 27 % in 1996 (SKK 30 986 million). These figures confirm that bonds have become a significant instrument of capital market in Slovakia.