Electronic Library of Scientific Literature
Volume 44 / No. 12 / 1996
The subject of the paper is the analysis of the connection between the
Slovak economy disequilibrium and the transformation if its system. A question
is raised concerning deepening the economic disequilibrium in the transformation
process. The conclusions on the disequilibrium deepening are based on the
analysis of the indicators such as depreciation, economic returns, cost
profitability and profit rate, interest and interest rate, as well as upon
the change of individual industries position assessed by labour productivity
and production decrease.
Deepening of the disequilibrium of the Slovak economy basically change conditions of its revival. The role of these conditions is played primarily by the inevitability to match costs and prices, this being the prerequisite of hindering further decapitalization of production, of resolving the problems of debt among enterprises having the form of insolvency within production sphere and indebtedness of production sphere with respect to banking sphere.
Even a partial analysis of present positions of individual industries of the economy shows the diversity from position that enable growth of the economy working under the conditions of market economy environment that comprise its internal and external relations. In this connection a deteriorated position of manufacturing industries is stated and that of engineering industry especially.
Banking reconstruction is a process that has began in 1989 having its
foundation in the laws No 130/1989 Coll. and 158/1989 Coll.
Under the notion of banking reconstructions the significant changes in banking are meant primarily concerning changes in ownership, position of banks in the economy, new forms of banking, development of new products and others.
The most significant change that occured under the given laws, was the demonopolization of commercial banking, the core of which is the process of gradual diminishing of the role of state in the commercial banks activity.
The process of gradual demonopolization - the first stage of banking reconstruction in the Czechoslovak Federal Republic - began by separation of the Czechoslovak State Bank (ŠBČS) into a bank of issue and three commercial banks.
Another landmark of the development and reconstruction of our banking meant the enactment of the law No. 21/1991 Coll. on banks and No. 22/1991 Coll. on ŠBČS (Czechoslovak State Bank) that gave a legislative framework to the activities of the bank of issue and commercial banks.
The third stage in the development of banking in Slovakia was establishment of the Slovak Republic. Under the law No. 566/1992 Coll. National Bank of Slovakia was founded as a bank of issue of the newly created state. The basic role of the Bank was to create and stabilize currency, to establish economic and entrepreneurial milieu for the system of commercial banks.
The third stage of Slovak banking reconstruction is characterized by the fact that, evidently, the banking sector has already resolved the problems of creating a structural banking system (duble-level system, respectively), in realization of which the extensive elements of growth were applied. Because of the fact that the system of commercial banks seems to be institutionally saturated the banking units start to orientate towards intensification factors of growth.
The author deals with the topic management and the impact of technology on the concept of management. In the time of transition accompanied by uncertainity it is necessary to understand management and new concept of technology (linked with managerial and organizational changes) in terms of change understood as the challenge. In this sense is very important and consequent to use the concept of management of changes as the concept of management of human recources asking for new organizational and managerial changes. But in order to understand all these changes it is necessary to depict the system changes as the fundaments of socioeconomic transformation in Slovakia.
Relationships between marketing and design are to be viewed from a broader
aspect of the process of modern society consumption, which is constantly
exposed to questions discussed by both, those consuming and those producing.
In order to win customers, the enterprise has to apply the marketing thinking
and design as fundamental sources of the enterprise competitiveness.
Common goals of marketing an design in the enterprise suggest that these activities ought to be organized rather in a horizontal than hierarchal way. Though some enterprises do even now attempt to realize the design on an hierarchy basis, significance of the product, plans that came to fulfilment, investments etc. are changing according to the stance of who intervenes in the course of individual phases.
Not regarding the organizational structure (be it functional, divisional), the product requires co-operative ties in an enterprise. We might say that a product is beyond the organizational structure and that marketing, design, communication and sales are equivalent and interconnected in full rights, mutually supporting and they operate through their synergic effect.
Tourism is taken for a form of consumption, i.e. the way of meeting
specific needs connected with travelling and staying in different environment
than a current one and in free time usually.
From the point of view of national economy the satisfaction of needs in tourism is equivalent to heterogeneous set of services. Structure of services is formed by two subsystems: subject of tourism and object of tourism which are in mutual interaction.
A unified system of information on demand and supply in tourist industry is needed not only for theory but for practice as well; the system must fulfil the decision-making requirements of both the state and local levels of government, business entities and, last but not least, the tourists themselves. The aim is to suggest a marketing information system for tourist industry as a starting point for creating market conceptions of enterpreneurial entities, especially tourist centres, regions and the whole country as a tourist target. Marketing information system in tourism has got a specific, cross-sectional character and its creation stems in information flow od data on supply and demand in tourist industry.
From the point of view of data basis the differenciated tourist data are the matter, and their set must be organized and arranged in such a way that they might provide complete, exact and relevant information in time, be able to adjust to conditions and meet the users' needs. Data bank enables to fulfil these requirements.