Electronic Library of Scientific Literature
Volume 44 / No. 11 / 1996
Joakim Palme from Swedish Institut for Social Research of Stockholm University compares in this article the social security systems in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden as the Nordic Model with the similar systems in other welfare state regimes. He is describing and analysing the main aspects of this model, explaining diffences among four nordic countries, so that he could answer three issues: "What is the Scandinavian model? Why has it emerged? What consequences does it have?" After doing it, he is informing about recent problems connected with system of social security and about the new trends in Sweden economy, that will affect the development of this system.
Contribution based on characterization of development of main issues of foreign capital invested in the Slovak Republic. In continuation on this characterization identifies macroeconomic functioning connected, in one hand, to inflow of foreign capital and, in other hand, to influence of foreign capital on economic development. Achieved results show that from economic point of view the recent inflow of foreign capital most strikingly connected to the exchange rate and GDP development. Effect of foreign capital on up to now economic development most intensively manifested in the sphere of exports, industrial production and labor productivity. The role of foreign capital in the Slovak Republic in irreplaceable. It concerns, first of all, to supply side of economic growth with special attention to improvement of competitiveness and acceleration of structural changes. From the viewpoint of further development it means that for Slovakia is more convenient to consider in the framework of maximization of foreign capital efficiency invested in the country than in the framework of maximization its amount. Respecting of this principle means listen special attention to promotion to FDI connected also with technological inflows, and its allocation to those industries which have highest chance to support long term economic growth.
This paper investigates both the change in wage determinants, gender, education and experience, together with the change in the earnings structure after 1989. A sequence of Chow tests is performed to analyse the evidence of a structural change in the composition of wages across the time and region. Raw wage profiles together with OLS regression estimates reported for the working population indicate that the gender gap decreased, premium on education increased and returns to experience decreased. After correcting for the omission of individuals with unobserved wages, the results for the entire sample reveal that the change in the premium on gender and education is overestimated if looking just at the restricted working sample. The main source of data for this empirical analysis are three large and representative datasets from 1984 and 1992 for the Czech and Slovak Republics.
According to the results of an analysis, the foodstuffs consumed in
the Slovak Republic contain excessive energetic value and are characteristic
of nutritive unbalance. To the main shortcomings belongs enormous receipt
of lipoids, vitamin C deficiency, shortage of non-digestive fibres, high
consumption of alcohol and salt. As for different groups of foodstuff in
consumption of milk and milk products and of fruit we are far behind the
recommended level. As to potatoes, vegetables and cerials the consumption
is roughly of the level recommended.
On the basis of the comparation we have a substancially lower consumption of meat and its much worse structure than the EU countries have. This trend has been followed especially in case of beaf and poultry. Much lower consumption of milk and milk products is also revealed. Consumption of oil is not much different except its composition, quantity of animal fat and vegetable oil. Consumption of the rest of food commodities is similar to ours.
Great stress should be put upon the strategy of reaching selfsufficiency in basic foodstuff production (produced under our conditions) that will enable to meet the needs of the population and to fill up the consumer basket. To reach the target it is necessary to make a proper use of home production conditions and of the human resources of qualified workers.
Not to speak of rare exemptions, the price policy did not support rational nutrition and in many cases it worked against its principles directly. Price interventions, the increase of nominal prices of some food groups - fruit and vegetable primarily -lowered quality of nutrition, caused stoppage of positive trends and stimulated retarding tendencies. Experiences concerning innovations of food products show that the consumer rejects innovation (a new assortment) which mean the increase of nutrition cost if they are not bringing a higher satisfaction, the nutritive value including.
Unemployment is a world-wide problem concerning not only transforming
economics of the former East block countries but the developed market economics
as well. The level of unemployment reflects the "health" of national
economy and must be considered to be an inevitable feature of the economy
based on the democratic principles.
There were substantial changes in the development of unemployment in the Slovak Republic from 1990 concerning the total amount of unemployed persons and their structure. The decrease of the total amount of the unemployed in 1989-1994 (about 400 thousand persons) was accompanied by major unemployment structural changes.
The best macroeconomic results reached in 1995 did not substantially influenced the total amount of the newly created labour opportunities. Even more negative seems to be the increase of unemployment in some specific groups of the unemployed: young people up to 25 years, persons without any or with low qualification and great regional differences in the unemployment. The heaviest problem is the long term unemployment lasting 12 or even more months. One of the reasons of it is the unwillingness of the unemployed to work because of the small difference between their labour income and the social benefits paid to them (being out of work). Main possibilities to solve the unemployment problem stem in the increased dynamics of new labour opportunities creation (which depends on general economic situation) and legislation which should in larger extent influence employers to employ workers from the risk groups of the unemployed population.