Electronic Library of
Volume 19 / Suppl. 1 / 2000
Petr Kantor, Vladimír Tesař, Robert Knott
Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Brno, Department of Forest Establishment and Silviculture, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Brno, Institute of Forest Ecology, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Kantor P., Tesař V., Knott R.: Ecological stability and production potential of allochthonous spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in upland regions of the Czech Republic. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 5-23.
The paper is based on the primary strategic goal of the Czech state forest policy: to restore and preserve stable forest ecosystems. The problem is topical particularly in upland regions where anthropic effects and uncertainty in the development of climate in next decades can result in disastrous impacts. Problems are discussed of the participation of our wide-spread and economically most important commercial species, i.e. Norway spruce. The situation is evaluated of allochthonous spruce in two mixed stands in the Křtiny Training Forest Enterprise (altitude 400 m). Data on mortality, mensurational parameters and production potential of both stands in 1958-1996 when the stands developed quite naturally and not affected by intentional felling measures are given in Tables 2-13 and Figures 2-5. Fundamental findings can be summarized into two points: 1. Forest ecosystems in upland regions dominated by Norway spruce can quite disintegrate before reaching their felling age unless ecologically more stable species are present in sufficient quantity and adequate spacing. 2. It has been also proved, however, that it is not possible ”a priori” and imperatively to exclude spruce as an important admixed species on acid as well as rich sites at lower vegetation zones from the species composition of individually mixed stands. On the basis of the principle of ”general caution” the proportion of spruce should not exceed 30 – 40% in any stand.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 5-23
Otmar URBAN, Michal V. MAREK, Dalibor JANOUŠ
Laboratory of Ecological Physiology of Forest Trees, Institute of Landscape Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Poříčí 3b, 603 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Urban O., Marek M.V., Janouš D.: Long-term influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration is responsible for down-regulation of Norway spruce photosynthesis. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 24-34.
Four individual maturated Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) were exposed to
elevated (ambient + 350 mmol(CO2) mol-1) CO2
concentration for five years using the open-top chambers (OTCs). The depression of CO2
assimilation was evident from the significant changes in both primary and secondary
photosynthetic reactions, and subsequently from the level of biomass allocation.
Short-term exposure to elevated CO2 was manifested by the increase of the CO2 assimilation because of suppressed fotorespiration and the increased carboxylation activity of RuBISCO enzyme. Statistically significant depression of the CO2 uptake and carboxylation efficiecy after the long-term exposure to elevated CO2 was estimated from the combination of gas exchange and fluorescence measurements, and the application of a biochemical model of photosynthesis. The analysis shows that the depression of photosynthetic activity by long-term impact of elevated CO2 is mainly caused by decreased RuBISCO carboxylation rate. The modifications of photosynthetic assimilation depend on the time during the growing season. Data sets obtained during three subsequent growing seasons show a seasonal periodicity of downward regulation of photosynthesis caused by a deficiency of nitrogen (in spring) and by lack of active sinks for increased production of assimilates (in autumn).
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 24-34
MIRKA ŠPRTOVÁ, MICHAL V. MAREK, DALIBOR JANOUŠ
Laboratory of Ecological Physiology of Forest Trees, Institute of Landscape Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Poříčí 3b, 603 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Šprtová M., Marek M.V., Janouš D.: Enhanced UV-B radiation: a possible new harmful environmental factor of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] K a r s t.) photosyntheis. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 35-47.
The cloned saplings of Norway spruce (7 years old) were exposed to enhanced UV-B irradiation (+25%) continuously over three growing seasons. An analysis of CO2 assimilation, analysis of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and pigment composition was performed in the end (September) of the third growing season to evaluate the influence of long-term elevated UV-B irradiation. 16 weeks under the influence of enhanced UV-B radiation was responsible for the depression of AN over the whole interval of investigated PPFD/Ci. Significant decrease of Anmax. (up to 9%) and alpha (up to 22%), and increase of Gammai (up to 57%) and of RD (up to 19%) was found. The long-term effect of enhanced UV-B radiation caused the significant decrease of Ansat (up to 60%) and tau (up to 8%), and significant increase of GammaC (up to 27%), compared to control. Investigations of the gas-exchange parameters discovered that the main limitation of assimilation can be identified at the level of RuBP regeneration related to the electron transport. The chlorophyll a+b content was significantly decreased in UV-B exposed variant. UV-B enhancement resulted in over-reduction of PS II at lower values of irradiance. The midday depression of the maximal photochemical yield (FV/FM) was deeper in E-variant. A light-induced decline in the FV/FM ratio was followed by biphasic recovery phase upon return to shade conditions. The rapid recovery phase, related to epoxidation of zeaxanthin, showed sharper slope in UV-B exposed variant. The slow phase of recovery of the FV/FM ratio represents reactivation of PSII by means of D1 protein turnover. The kinetics of the slow phase of recovery in E-variant was 0.58 time that of the C-variant. This indicates impairment of the D1 protein turnover as a result of long-term influence of UV-B radiation enhancement. Presented results show that in Norway spruce long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation under field conditions can be reason for negative changes at the level of primary photosynthetic reactions and increased sensitivity to the photoinhibition of photosynthesis.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 35-47
FJODOR TATARINOV, JAN ČERMÁK, JIŘÍ KUČERA, ALOIS PRAX
Institute of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemědělská 3, 61300 Brno, The Czech Republic
Environmental Measuring Systems, Inc., Turisticka 5, 62100 Brno, The Czech Republic
Tatarinov F., Čermák J., Kučera J., Prax A.: Transpiration of spruce in a mature plantation in Drahanska Vrchovina uplands, Moravia. I. Variation between individual trees. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol.19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 48-62.
Transpiration of 22 individual trees in a mature plantation of spruce in Drahanska Vrchovina uplands, Moravia (Querci-fageta abietis forest-type group) was studied through the measurement of sap flow by the stem section heat balance method over six years. Relative transpiration of trees was calculated as the ratio of daily totals of their actual transpiration and potential evapotranspiration (standard crop evapotranspiration, Et). This was expressed in % of the canopy projected area unit and in m2 per tree as the ”effective crown area” when a ratio of whole tree transpiration to Et was considered. Significant relationships were found between the sap flux density (expressed per stem section 1 cm wide) measured at breast height and tree size. Relative transpiration of canopy area unit (Trel) reached in average about 1/3 of potential evapotranspiration, it was very variable between individual trees as well as between different periods of time during growing seasons. Highest values occurred in medium size trees, while in small and large trees they were mostly smaller and less variable. Higher Trel occurred in medium and big trees with relatively narrow crowns. Trel had two limits, gradually appearing outside of a rather wide range of soil water storage values between 100 to 135 mm per 40 cm layer. Canopy water storage capacity reached in average 0.6 mm – within the wide range of 0.1 to 1.7 mm, which was dependent on social positions of trees.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 48-62
Petr Maděra, Milena Martinková, Marie Štěpánková
Department of Forest Botany, Dendrology and Typology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Maděra P., Martinková M., Štěpánková M.: Growth response of Norway spruce to synergetic effects of stress factors of lower altitudinal vegetation zones. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol.19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 63-80.
Biometrical characteristics of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) trees were evaluated in the rest of a commercial forest (age 85 years) at the locality of the Křtiny Arboretum (area 23 hectare, eastern aspect, altitude 450-500 m, mean annual temperature 7.7°C, mean annual precipitation 620 mm, forest type 3B6) with the aim to determine effects of long-term well-defined conditions of a lower vegetation zone on the growth and performance of an artificially planted spruce stand. Three sample trees were selected in a sample plot corresponding to an average tree in terms of diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), height and crown length. In the sample trees, branches from the various depth of tree crown were analysed in detail in terms of diameter increment (annual ring analysis at the base of branches), length and dry matter (DM) of particular shoot year-classes, their stem parts and needles. In needles, their area, pigment content and other derived characteristics were also analysed. In particular sample trees, the following characteristics were determined: detailed crown architecture, number and spacing of whorls, weight of needle DM of the whole whorls, branch length, branch parts with and without needles, orientation of particular branches to cardinal points, angle of branches, branch diameter and bark thickness, branch annual ring analysis and annual ring analysis of stems below the crown. By means of data extrapolation from the sample trees, stand architecture was demonstrated, data were presented on the total and partial above-ground biomass of the tree layer, relationships were determined between the total foliage area of the crown layer (or a chlorophyll unit) and radiation transmittance and also relationships between the relative insolation of a herb layer and requirements of the undergrowth synusia for light according to Ellenberg et al. (1992). Results were compared with some data determined in a natural beech stand within the same site potential conditions of the Arboretum. Through the evaluation of tree growth and stand structure it was possible to demonstrate acceleration of stand ageing starting already from 60 years of stand physical age, to recommend shortening the rotation period and to substantiate the necessity of return to a richer species composition.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 63-80
SVATAVA GRABAŘOVÁ, MILENA MARTINKOVÁ
Institute of forest botany, dendrology and typology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Grabařová S., Martinková M.: Changes of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) growth characteristics under the impact of drought. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 81-103.
A plot of 225 m2 in the 1st generation Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) monoculture (age 77-92 years) in the research plot at Rájec nad Svitavou (altitude 625-640 m, 49° 20’ 37’’ northern latitude (j), 16° 42’ 1’’ eastern longitude (l), operated by the Institute of Forest Ecology was roofed for the period of 1983-1985. The roof was erected under the crowns of about twenty trees and its purpose was to induce drought stress. The paper presents a confrontation of biometric characteristics of shoots from top and basal crown parts, studied in three research phases as follows: 1. In 1980-1985: study of the roof impact (Vondřejc, 1986); 2. In 1984-1990: study of regeneration type (Zvolánková, 1993); 3. In 1990-1997: evaluation of experimental results in comparison with results obtained under conditions of naturally occurring droughts. Drought stress led to the decrease in the size of transpiration and assimilatory compartments (area, surface, needle dry matter, etc.), to the restriction of shoot elongation and diameter growth, and to the general reduction of DM accumulation. Some of parameters were to a considerable extent predicted by the conditions of the preceding year (such as needle number per shoot), other were depending on whether the drought occurred in the period from May to June (stem length) or later (DM accumulation) with annual ring area depending on the conditions of the current year. Healthy individuals recovered and restored the original growth rate after two to three years after the water stress (roof) was removed. The methods of growth analysis made it possible to identify the stress impact and to find a different behaviour of the top and basal parts of crowns or that of the healthy and weakened individuals. Regarding the fact that the ratio between the annual precipitation amounts and annual average temperature was decreased in the course of several successive years down to values close to semiarid regions (1989, 1992), or the precipitation were low (1993), or the temperatures high above average (1994), some biometric characteristics (in the third phase of research, i. e. in 1990-1997) reached the values close to those found at the artificially induced water stress by roofing the plot. In a non-autochthonous environment the tree species must face a repeated water stress (low precipitation and their fluctuation) and a temperature stress (supraoptimum or frost temperatures combined with insufficient snow cover). All this results in weakening, precocious ageing and development of fungal diseases.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 81-103
Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Lesnická 37, 613 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Bednářová E.: Changes in epicuticular waxes of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) due to air pollution stress. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 104-112.
Negative changes in epicuticular waxes of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) needles were monitored in four localities differing in the degree of air pollution load. Samples of needles were analysed six month after their burst. Changes in the structure of epicuticular waxes were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Quantitative analyses of waxes in all the localities under study were also carried out. In air-polluted regions, considerable damage to the structure of epicuticular waxes was found already in the period after needle burst. Wax layers on needles were also diminished as compared with control samples coming from regions free of air pollution load. In the air-polluted regions, damage to epicuticular waxes increased with the increasing altitude of forest stands. Significant relationships were proved between the decrease in waxes and altitude in regions with high SO2 concentration. In regions of high air pollution load, degradation of wax structures on needles can occur already half a year after flushing the needles before the winter period.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 104-112
Institute of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Klimo E.: Stress factors in the ecosystems of Norway spruce monocultures, induced by changed soil properties and nutrient cycling. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 113-129.
Outside their natural range, the Norway spruce monocultures condition numerous changes in soil processes and in nutrient cycling, which also reflects back in the general condition of the whole ecosystem. From this point of view the paper is focused on changes in the accumulation of organic matter on the soil surface, nutrient cycling (particularly N), status of stand nutrition, soil acidification, needle fall and ecological consequences of the clear-cutting system of regenerating Norway spruce stands such as soil compaction by heavy forest machines, removal of nutrients due to logging, soil surface heterogeneization and nutrition status of the successive Norway spruce stand.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 113-129
Jiří KULHAVÝ, Pavel FORMÁNEK, Marta BETUŠOVÁ
Institute of Forest Ecology, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Kulhavý J., Formánek P., Betušová M.: Ecological aspects of growing the 2nd generation Norway spruce monocultures on sites situated at higher altitudes of the Moravian-Silesian Beskids. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 130-150.
The forest region of the Moravian-Silesian Beskids is of a specific character with a variability of factors forming the present forest ecosystems. In addition to the climate, parent rock and the method of management, an important role is being played by air-pollution. The Czech Republic has in general an unfavourable balance of protons in the forest ecosystems derived from the high inputs of SO42- (and NO3-) ions from the polluted atmosphere. The total potential acid depositions amount to 2.5-7.0 kmol H+.ha-1. year-1, which are values to markedly exceed the soil neutralization capacity. The goal of the project is to analyze main factors influencing the growth of young Norway spruce stands in the 2nd generation on sites situated at higher altitudes with podzolic soils of the Moravian-Silesian Beskids, treated with different ways (intensities) of silvicultural measures and liming.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 130-150
Oldřich MAUER, Eva PALÁTOVÁ
Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Mauer O., Palátová E.: Root system response to stress in artificially established Norway spruce stands. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol.19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 151-161.
The paper presents an analysis of the root system response to some natural and anthropogenic stress conditions such as improper regeneration technology, drought, increased nitrogen depositions, acid depositions in the artificially established cultures and younger stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). Attention is paid to the root system architecture and particularly to the morphological and physiological aspects of the growth of fine roots whose importance is decisive for the tree nutrition. Most of the stresses have an adverse influence on the development of the root system earlier and to a greater extent than on the growth of the aboveground part. The determined trends of the root system response to stress helped to formulate some recommendations for the artificial regeneration of Norway spruce.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 151-161
Institute of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technolgy, Mendel University of Agricultural and Forestry, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Hadaš P.: Analysis of the climate as a stress factor to forest ecosystems. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 162-176.
The forest ecosystems in their natural conditions are exposed to a permanent
climatic stress. The paper brings an assessment of the temperature stress provoked by high
temperatures and that of the moisture stress induced by insufficient rainfall in the
territory of the original distribution of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) in
Forest Altitudinal Vegetation Zones (FAVZ) 7 and 8 during 1980-1997, in the time
horizons of 2010, 2030 and 2075. The annual and monthly temperature averages, and the
respective rainfall totals are derived on the basis of the horizontal and vertical
interpolation of the measured values from the climatological and rain gauging stations
into the grid of 10527 reference points. The expected annual and monthly average
temperatures, and the respective rainfall totals are derived according to the CCCM
(Canadian Climate Center Model) model scenario. Taking into regard the analysis of
reaching or exceeding the average temperature of 14.8°C (as the upper temperature limit
for Norway spruce) in the course of the growing season (V. – VIII.) and the growing
season rainfall totals below the derived limit values, the results can be summarized into
the following conclusions:
1. In 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995 and 1997, the upper temperature limit was exceeded at least in one of the months of July and August, which provoked temperature stress in the locations of FAVZ 7.
2. In 1990 and 1992, the conditions of moisture stress in FAVZ 7 and FAVZ 8 were complied with during the growing season.
3. It follows from the analysis of the deviations from the average rainfall totals in the growing periods of respective years in 1980-1997 and from the average standard value of the growing season for 1961-1990 that the total rainfall deficit in 1990 exceeded 400 mm, the amount which corresponds to one growing season rainfall total.
4. It can be expected that the temperature optimum and the rainfall ensurance of Norway spruce stands will be shifted after 2075 into the highest locations of the forest altitudinal vegetation zone 8.
5. In the consequence of the oncoming mild winters, the prolonged growing period with the occurrence of the average monthly temperatures above 14.8°C, and the drop of the growing season rainfall totals below ca 560 mm, Norway spruce in the area of FAVZ 7 is expected to lose its competitiveness to other tree species after 2075.
6. The extreme temperature and rainfall conditions in the months of July and August 1994 showed also in the areas of FAVZ 7 and FAVZ 8 and exceeded for a short time even the values of temperature and rainfall changes anticipated after 2075!
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 162-176
Otto Hauck, Milan Palát
Department of Forest Establishment, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemědělská 5, 613 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Hauck O., Palát M.: Norway spruce increment and stress as related to the type of branching. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 177-189.
Data necessary for the determination of the proportion of various types of branching in stands under study, their variability within a tree, accuracy of classification of the type of branching, damage to particular types of branching due to breakage and their regeneration and initial age for their reliable recognition by annual ring analyses were obtained according to the Samek method from 1336 trees situated in 11 sample plots in the region of the Beskids and from 266 trees situated in 3 sample plots in the Hrubý Jeseník Mts. Statistically significant differences were determined in the diameter and height increments for particular types of branching. From the branching type 1.5 (fascicle/comb-shaped) across type 2 (fascicle-shaped) and type 2.5 (fascicle/plate-shaped to type 3 (plate-shaped) both d.b.h., total tree height and radial increment decrease. The type of branching can be considered as a predisposition to stress.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, Supplement 1/2000, p. 177-189