Electronic Library of
Volume 19 / No. 1 / 2000
ERIKA BUČKOVÁ, KAMILA BACIGÁLOVÁ, ALEXANDRA ŠIMONOVIČOVÁ, ELEONÓRA FRANKOVÁ,
Institute of Botany Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 14, 842 23 Bratislava, The Slovak Republic
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Department of Soil Science, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava, The Slovak Republic
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak Technical University, Department of Sanitary Engineering, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, The Slovak Republic
Institute of Microbiology Slovak Academy of Sciences, Štefánikova 3, 814 34 Bratislava, The Slovak Republic
Bučková E., Bacigálová K., Šimonovičová A., Franková E., Benková S.: Occurrence and abundance of microscopic fungi in floodplain forest soils. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 3-9, 2000.
Occurrence of soil micromycetes was investigated in soils at four localities in floodplain forests with Salix (S1–S4) and at four localities in floodplain forests with Populus (P1–P4) in the vicinity of Gabčíkovo. The age category of forests were from 10 to 40 years. Thirty-one genera of microscopic fungi were determined from Fluvi – eutric Gleysol and Eutric Fluvisol (FAO). The most frequent genera are: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Verticillium, Humicola.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No.1, 3-9, 2000
JANA KONÔPKOVÁ, FERDINAND TOKÁR
Institute of Forest Ecology Slovak Academy of Sciences, Branch for the Biology of Woody Plants, Akademická 2, 949 01 Nitra, The Slovak Republic
Konôpková J., Tokár F.: Energy content of the aboveground biomass of Quercus rubra L. and Juglans nigra L. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 10-22, 2000.
This work reviews mass production of the aboveground biomass and energy content of 39-yr stands of Quercus rubra L. and Juglans nigra L. on a PRA at Ivanka near Nitra. The maximum stock of the aboveground dendromass of the said stands of 233.76 t.ha-1 with an energy value of 4556,83 GJ. ha-1 was determined on PRA VI (Juglans nigra L. 20%, Quercus rubra L. 80%) and the minimum stock of 180.91 t.ha-1 with an energy value of 3497.87 GJ.ha-1 on PRA V (Juglans nigra L. 20%, Tilia cordata M i l l. 80%). The observations of energy value in individual parts and components of the aboveground dendromass of the stands of Quercus rubra L. and Juglans nigra L. showed that the greatest energy content of 21 352 J.g-1 is cumulated in leaves of Quercus rubra L. and the smallest of 18 583 J.g-1 in bark of 1-yr twigs of Juglans nigra L.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No.1, 10-22, 2000
International Centre of Ecology Polish Academy of Sciences, Dziekanów Leśny 05092 Łomianki, Poland
Kozak I.: Biomass of forest and meadow in the Eastern Carpathians. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol.19, No. 1, 23-26, 2000.
A comparison between the biomass, primary productivity and distribution of organic matter in native mixed beech forest dominated by beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and secondary meadow dominated by Nardus stricta L. within the beech forest belt in the Eastern Carpathians has been made. In the forest a total biomass of 371.9 t.ha-1 was found with 286.4 t.ha-1 and 85.5 t.ha-1 for aboveground and belowground biomass respectively. Corresponding results for the primary productivity were 17.0, 13.1 and 3.8 t.ha-1.year-1. A productivity of ground vegetation was equal to 0.7 t.ha-1.year-1. The litter fall reached an average 3.6±0.1 t.ha-1.year-1. In the meadow biomass of above and belowground parts was 2.3 and 8.1 t.ha-1. The primary productivity was 4.6 t.ha-1.year-1 (43 % above and 57 % belowground portions).
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No.1, 23-26, 2000
WEI WANG, KE-PING MA
Center for Ecological Research, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Haidian District, Beijing, 100093, P.R. China
Wang W., Ma K.P.: Acorn demography of Quercus liaotungensis in broad-leaved deciduous forests of Dongling Mountain Region. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol.19, No. 1, 27-38, 2000.
Quercus liaotungensis is dominant tree species in warm temperate zone of China. Sexual reproduction may be critical for Quercus liaotungensis population to colonize and regenerate, so acorns in soil seed bank and seed rain were investigated in five broad-leaved deciduous forests (Quercus liaotungensis forest, Betula dahurica forest, Betula platyphylla forest, Quercus liaotungensis coppice, immature Quercus liaotungensis forest) of Dongling Mountain Region. The different layer soil samples were collected to estimate the seed density of soil seed bank and to investigate spatial distribution of seed in soil. In addition, in order to compare the density between seed rain and seed on the surface of soil, forty-seven seed traps were randomly set up in Quercus liaotungensis forest, and quadrat adjacent to each trap were set up. The seed density of seed rain and seed on soil surface was estimated through the seed fallen in the traps and on soil surface respectively. The results are as follows: the viable acorn densities are very low in soil seed bank of all the forest sites except in the Quercus liaotungensis forest site. The average depth of acorns distribution in soil ranges from 2.25 cm to 6.50 cm. Not including Quercus liaotungensis forest site, the viable acorns in other four forest sites all deposited in litter layer and 0-3 cm soil layer. The viable acorns produced before current year were not found in soil seed bank. Quercus liaotungensis generally form transient bank. The viable seed density of seed rain is significantly higher than that of viable acorns on the soil surface, indicating that animals remove and cache acorns from the soil surface where acorns originally reach.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No.1, 27-38, 2000
Ivan Jarolímek, Viera Banásová, Helena Oťaheľová
Intitute of Botany of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 14, 842 23 Bratislava, The Slovak Republic
Jarolímek I., Banásová V., Oťaheľová. H.: Changes in alluvial grassland vegetation in relation to flood dynamics and soil moisture. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No.1, 39-53, 2000.
The significant changes of hydrological regime were observed during seven years (1992-1998). The changes concerned mainly the number of days when the groundwater and floodwater levels were high and their timing. The first two years were relatively dry and the floods occurred only in spring – at the beginning of growing season. In the next two years the floods started in winter and lasted until the beginning of summer. In addition, during the last three years the permanent plot was flooded once again – at the end of summer. The changes of moisture conditions were followed by changes in species composition of vegetation. The number and cover of annual and biennial species declined. On the contrary, the abundance of perennials, especially of helophytes, gradually increased. Between-year species turnover increased rapidly after the long-term flooding of the permanent plot. Species turnover was subsequently influenced more by disappearance than by immigration of species. The number of species in permanent plot was reduced from 24 to 14. The increasingly brief duration of the terrestrial ecophase led to a change of vegetation within the permanent plot. A meadow sward, closely related to the communities of the alliance Molinion and Potentillion anserinae (class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea), changed, due to exchange of dominants and also of many accessory species, to marsh vegetation syntaxonomically close to the association Glycerietum maximae of the alliance Phragmition (class Phragmiti-Magnocaricetea).
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No.1, 39-53, 2000
LADISLAV ŠOMŠÁK, FERDINAND KUBÍČEK
Department of Soil Sciences, Comenius University, Faculty of Natural Science, Mlynská dolina II B, 842 15 Bratislava, The Slovak Republic
Institute of Landscape Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Štefániková 3, P.O.Box 254, 814 99 Bratislava, The Slovak Republic
Šomšák L., Kubíček F.: Phytocoenological and production evaluation of the original and secondary pine forests of the Borská nížina lowland. III. Alliance Potentillo albae – Quercion petraeae Z ó l. et J a k. 1967. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 54-63, 2000.
This contribution characterizes the phytocoenotic composition of the mixed pine-oak and oak communities classified as the association Frangulo alni-Quercetum robori-petraeae Michalko in Michalko et al. 1986 nom. nov. Michalko 1991 and their production-ecological changes in the herb layer caused by an artificial planting of pine monocultures. Results were obtained from the Borská nížina lowland blown, silicate sands.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 54-63, 2000
Arnab Sarma, Václav Tlapák
Faculty of Forestry, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemědělská-3, 61300 Brno, The Czech Republic
Sarma A., Tlapák V.: Realisation of soil conservation policies and projects- the challenging problems ahead. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 64-71, 2000.
There is a general opinion that there is much more to be understood about the technical aspects of soil erosion and about the soil conservation techniques. However, there is an even greater challenge in understanding the non-technical aspects associated with it. During the first half of this century, emphasis was laid mainly on the traditional North-American style of conservation, involving manipulation of the land to control surface run-off by using graded channel terraces. In the 1950s many agronomic practices were also developed to supplement the traditional method. However, research carried out during the 1970s in many countries and at international research centres like ICRISAT and IITA, made workers and scientists to think that major modification were necessary in this direction. To achieve this, the three basic approaches namely, soil conservation is a good thing, co-operative programs, and financial incentives were made use of to find solutions to soil conservation programs. Various combinations of the above three elements were also tried. In parallel with the realisation in the seventies that new technical solutions are required, there was a parallel realisation that putting the concepts into operation is extremely difficult and that the problem of operationalisation of soil conservation schemes is widespread. The problem actually arises from a complex interaction between a large number of mutually interactive factors, namely, political, socio-cultural, and economic. This paper therefore aims at analysing the above mentioned mutually interactive non-technical aspects.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 64-71, 2000
František Šach, Petr Kantor, Vladimír Černohous
Forest and Game Management Research Institute, Research Station of Silviculture, 517 73 Opočno, The Czech Republic
Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Lesnická 37, 613 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Šach F., Kantor P., Černohous V.: Forest ecosystems, their management by man and floods in the Orlické hory Mts in summer 1997. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 72-91, 2000.
Based on long-term hydrological and hydropedological studies conducted on research areas in the Orlické hory Mts and their foothills in the Czech Republic, water retention in the land with forest ecosystems was evaluated in headwaters in the period of high summer precipitation. The retention was assessed with respect to methods of forest management. The theory of variable source areas was used for the genesis of flow waves. Probable retention capacity of forest soils in the mountains and foothills ranged between 80 and 100 mm. On a steep southern slope in the foothills, probable retention capacity of forest soil increased in relation to increasing field moisture capacity and decreasing soil moisture from a clearcut area to a spruce mature stand of 0.5 stocking up to a spruce mature stand of full stocking. The study of total retention of forest ecosystems on slopes showed negligible surface runoff even in the period of high precipitation and, on the contrary, massive subsurface runoff. On a steep southern slope in the foothills, total retention of a spruce thicket was higher than that of a spruce mature stand with respect to the larger needle biomass and higher total evapotranspiration. The total retention of the forest watershed in a mountain region ranged between 40 and 50 mm with respect to its considerable average saturation, in case of higher desuction of the watershed the retention could reach up to 100 mm. Thus, forests can reduce smaller floods but generally not extreme flood events. Differentiation of variable source areas, obtaining, evaluating and synthesis of findings and the proposal of differentiated management of forest ecosystems with the aim to reduce floods and their effects will require still much research work.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 72-91, 2000
Institute of Landscape Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Štefánikova 3, P.O.Box 254, 814 99 Bratislava, The Slovak Republic
Izakovičová Z.: Evaluation of the stress factors in the landscape. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 92-103, 2000.
The aim of the present contribution is elaboration of methodological directions for
classification, specification, characterization and evaluation of stress factors –
primary and secondary stress factors. Stress factor (negative factor) can be defined as an
each factor which negatively affect the natural development of landscape ecosystems.
Stress factors evaluation in the landscape planning represents two aspects:
1. ecological problems – stress factors can be regarded as main initiation factors of the occurrence (rise) of ecological problems
2. ecological regulations (limits) – the activity of different landscape stress factors affects the landscape utilization. Concerning the ecological optimalization of landscape utilization, stress factors represent a part of ecological regulatives (limits) of the development.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 92-103, 2000
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Shafiq
Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Iqbal M.Z., Shafiq M.: Periodical effects of automobile pollution on the growth of some roadside trees. Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 104-110, 2000.
The automobile exhaust significantly reduced the branch length and yield of Guaiacum officinale, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus sp. The yield of Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus sp.and Guaiacum officinale was lessened at the polluted sites of the city. The increase in branch length of all the species was found mainly in control as compared to polluted sites. The branch length and seed weight of G. officinale and Eucalyptus sp. reduced significantly (p<0.05) at highly polluted sites of the city i.e. M.A. Jinnah Road as compared to control. Eucalyptus sp. showed maximum branch length (2.36 cm) at campus (Control) as compared to Shaheed-e-Millat Road (2.04 cm) Liaquatabad (1.97 cm) and M.A.Jinnah Road (1.82 cm), respectively in the month of July. However the lowest increase in branch length of Eucalyptus sp. (1.7 cm) was found at the highly polluted site on the forth week of observation in the month of June at M.A. Jinnah Road followed by Shaheed-e-Millat Road (2.0 cm) Liaquatabad (2.03 cm) and Campus (2.24 cm), respectively. Azadirachta indica showed maximum reduction in branch length at M.A. Jinnah Road (0.94 cm) followed by Shaheed-e-Millat Road (1.18 cm), Liaquatabad (1.30 cm) and Campus (2.02 cm) on the forth week of observation in June. Guaiacum officinale showed the minimum branch length at M. A. Jinnah Road (1.94 cm) on eight weeks of observation in the month of July.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 104-110, 2000
Piotr Tryjanowski, Elżbieta Koralewska-Batura
Institute of Environmental Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań, Poland
Tryjanowski P., Koralewska-Batura E.: Inter-habitat shell morphometric differentiation of the snail Helix lutescens R o s s m. (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No.1, p. 111-116, 2000.
Adult individuals of the calciphilous snail species Helix lutescens collected on road-sides in South Poland, independently from other habitat characteristic (open vs. closed) have a smaller shell size (six measured parameters and total shell-size obtained as PC1 in principal component analysis) than the individuals living far from roads. This difference is probably caused by a lead contamination in plants and next by its impact on a snail calcium metabolism. Helix lutescens and especially its shell size can be used as a suitable bioindicator for measuring pollution effects.
Ekológia (Bratislava), Vol. 19, No. 1, 111-116, 2000