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The list of national projects SAS

Plant Science and Biodiversity Center SAS
Biosystematics, fylogeny and distribution of ascomycetes of the order Leotiales in the Carpathians
Biosystematika, fylogenetické vzťahy a distribúcia vreckatých húb z radu Leotiales v Karpatoch
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Kučera Viktor PhD.
Annotation:Most members of the order Leotiales are quite rare and are endangered almost in all countries of their occurrence. The order includes two families, Geoglossaceae (8 genera) and Leotiaceae (3 genera). They occur in some forest areas but predominantly they are associated with specific non-forest habitats, such as peat bogs, meadows, pastures and also sand dunes. Recently numerous new taxa are being described but no determination manual for their identification is available. Latest estimate includes about 25 taxa of the order in the Carpathians but delimitation of most of them is vague. We have identified serious taxonomical problems in genera Geoglossum, Microglossum and Thuemenidium that have to be solved. Taxonomical data will support consequent phylogenetic analyses and discussion on paraphyletic origin of genera. Field collections from the Carpathians, type and other material held in fungaria also published records will allow us to summarize ecology, construct distribution maps and propose threat status.
Duration: 1.1.2019 - 31.12.2022
Determination, spreading pattern and impact of invasive plants on native ecosystems: case studies on Centaurea, Fallopia and Solidago
Determinácia, šírenie a vplyv inváznych rastlín na prirodzené ekosystémy: príkladové štúdie na rodoch Centaurea, Fallopia a Solidago
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Skokanová Katarína PhD.
Annotation:The project aims to study taxonomically problematic and hardly distinguishable invasive taxa and cytotypes of Centaurea stoebe agg., Fallopia japonica agg. and Solidago canadensis agg. occurring in central Europe. By combination of biosystematic approaches (morphometrics, flow cytometry, chromosome counting) we will determine particular taxa and cytotypes. Thanks to extensive field survey and revision of herbarium specimens we will contribute to the knowledge on current and past distribution of F. japonica agg. and S. canadensis agg. in central Europe and cytotypes of C. stoebe agg. in mixed-ploidy populations. Further, we will analyse ecological demands of particular taxa and cytotypes and model their future potential spreading within the studied area. To reveal and to compare impact of invasive taxa of F. japonica agg. and S. canadensis agg. on natural biotopes we will use a combined approach including analyses of soil properties, seed bank, diversity of plants, fungi and molluscs in invaded biotopes.
Duration: 1.1.2019 - 31.12.2022
Diversity and distribution of species and communities in changing environment
Diverzita a distribúcia druhov a spoločenstiev v meniacom sa prostredí
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Šibíková Mária PhD.
Annotation:Spatio-temporal changes translate to changes in diversity and distribution of populations and communities across all organizational levels, influencing many aspects of biota. Shifts in distribution of plant communities and species including invasions by alien species gained significance in past decades when this phenomenon became more evident. Now it is obvious that the main drivers and causes of changes in diversity and distribution include 1) land use and management; 2) climate change; 3) spreading of alien species and 4) natural disturbances. Combinations of these factors influence vegetation, agroecosystems and forestry either in negative or positive way. Identifying general pattern at local scales, in various habitats, and differentiation of effects caused by each driver will help us to understand the impact of observed changes and their role in ecosystems. To reach our goals we focus on habitats from the basins to the alpine belt – floodplains, montane forests, grassland and alpine communities.
Duration: 1.1.2019 - 31.12.2022
Diversity of plant understory of alder forests in the main bioregions of Central Europe
Diverzita rastlín jelšových lesov hlavných bioregiónov strednej Európy
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Hrivnák Richard PhD.
Annotation:Alder forests with dominance of Alnus glutinosa are ecologically and floristically specific vegetation type. These forests belong to the endangered vegetation and they are under strong human pressure in Central Europe. We focus on the study of plant diversity patterns (alpha, beta and gamma) in the main Central European bioregions (Alpine, Continental and Pannonian) with respect to various plant groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, native and alien species) and two types of these forests, riparian alder forests and alder carrs. In addition, we would like to detect which ecological factors (including human impact) have an impact on alpha diversity of plants and which conditions predeterminate the highest species richness.
Duration: 1.1.2019 - 31.12.2022
Demand-driven research for the sustainable and inovative food
Dopytovo orientovaný výskum pre udržateľné a inovatívne potraviny
Program:
Project leader: RNDr. Gajdošová Alena CSc.
Duration: 1.9.2020 - 30.6.2023
Flora of Slovakia – Asteraceae family (Part 2): biosystematic study of critical taxa
Flóra Slovenska – čeľaď Asteraceae (2. časť): biosystematické štúdium kritických taxónov
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Hodálová Iva CSc.
Annotation:The project is focused on taxonomic and chorological revision of selected representatives of Asteraceae family (tribes Cardueae, Eupatoriae, Heliantheae, Inuleae) in Slovakia or Central Europe, respectively. The main result will be publishing of the next volume of book series Flora of Slovakia, namely Volume VI/2 (Part 2). Each taxon (cca 140 species, 55 genera) will be treated in terms of nomenclature, morphology, karyology, ecology, and chorology. Identification keys (in Slovak and English), original drawings of plants and distribution maps will be also included. Results of the study of taxonomically complex groups from genera Centaurea, Colymbada, Cyanus and Helianthus will be published in separate papers. As part of the project we will published also a book with revised Slovak vascular plant names (Slovak Nomenclature of Vascular Plants; cca 25,000 headings) and an extended and supplemented electronic edition of the biographical dictionary Botanical Personalities of Slovakia (cca 630 personalities).
Duration: 1.1.2021 - 31.12.2024
Functional and taxonomic diversity of wetlands and their relationship to ecosystem processes
Funkčná a taxonomická diverzita mokradí a ich vzťah k ekosystémovým procesom
Program: SRDA
Project leader: Ing. Hrivnák Richard PhD.
Annotation:Functional diversity is a component of biodiversity that generally concerns the range of things that organisms do in ecosystems. The relationship between taxonomic and functional diversity is virtually unknown in the most of ecosystems. The proposed project is focused on functional biodiversity of wetland communities and its relationship with taxonomic diversity and ecosystem processes. Proposed project is based on the study of three ecosystem processes of key importance in wetlands: decomposition rate, primary productivity and invasibility. Pond-dwelling communities of plant and macroinvertebrates are proposed here as a model system for the research with the following aims: 1) To evaluate the effect of environment and diversity (functional and taxonomic) on ecosystem processes 2) To assess the response of taxonomic and functional diversity to human influence
Duration: 1.7.2017 - 30.6.2021
Functional analysis of synaptotagmins in responses of plants to environmental stresses
Funkčná analýza synaptotagmínov so zreteľom na odpovede rastlín na environmentálne stresy
Program: SRDA
Project leader: doc. RNDr. Jásik Ján DrSc.
Annotation:Crop yields are largely dependent on their tolerances to environmental influences, including salinity. Previously, we have shown that the Arabidopsis synaptotagmin 1 (AtSYT1), the most abundantly expressed Arabidopsis ortholog of the well-known calcium sensors in animal neurons, is involved in responses to abiotic stresses. The general goal of this proposal is to reveal the mechanisms by which AtSYTs regulate the reactions to high salinity and other stresses. We wish to characterize AtSYTs expression, describe phenotype of Atsyts mutant lines, to study subcellular localisation of AtSYTs, and to monitor intracellular dynamics of AtSYT1. Additionally, we shall address the functional analysis of the interaction fished out in the yeast two hybrid assay connecting AtSYT1 to the MAPK cascade. Our study will contribute to the overall understanding of how membrane trafficking is involved in stress responses.
Duration: 1.6.2017 - 30.6.2021
Genetic structure of hybrid swarms of Scots pine and dwarf mountain pine in Slovakia
Genetická štruktúra hybridných rojov borovice lesnej a borovice horskej na Slovensku
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Kormuťák Andrej DrSc.
Annotation:The project aims in description of genetic status of the putative hybrid swarms of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) in northern Slovakia. The attention will be paid to comparison of genetic structure of the putative hybrid swarms Medzi Bormi in Zuberec-Habovka, Tisovnica in Oravska Polhora, Sucha Hora and Obšívanka-Sokolie near Terchova with the structure of selected reference populations of pure species P. mugo and P. sylvestris. As genetic markers, the microsatellites of the nuclear genes and tandem repeated retrotranspozons of nuclear DNA (iPBS) will be used. Obtained experimental data will serve in calculation the basic characteristics of genetic structure in individual populations and subsequent drawing the conclusions about genetic distance between them as the main indication of their resemblance or differentiation.
Duration: 1.1.2020 - 31.12.2022
Hydrolytic enzymes of carnivorous plants and their potential for application in biotechnology
Hydrolytické enzýmy mäsožravých rastlín a ich potenciál pre biotechnologické využitie
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Libantová Jana CSc.
Annotation:The genus Drosera L. represents more than 250 species of carnivorous plants with leaves adapted to capture insects, digest them, and absorb the nutrients. The genomes of individual species, including the genes involved in digestion have been poorly explored so far. Chitinases and ß-1,3-glucanases are believed to play important role in developmental processes, responses to stress as well as during the insect prey digestion. Previously we have isolated two genes encoding chitinase and ß-1,3-glucanase from Drosera binata. Here, we focus on the isolation of reference genes from this species and revealing expression profiles for chitinase and ß-1,3-glucanase genes in individual organs, upon stress and during digestion. Purified enzymes will be tested on their ability to inhibit the growth of phytopathogens and to hydrolyse different substrates. Following the enzyme hydrolysis the size of products will be determined. This way potential of these genes for application in biotechnology and pharmacy will be explored.
Duration: 1.1.2020 - 31.12.2023
Identification and monitoring Natura 2000 habitats by dynamic segmentation of satellite images
Identifikácia a monitoring biotopov Natura 2000 pomocou dynamickej segmentácie satelitných obrazov
Program: SRDA
Project leader: RNDr. Šibík Jozef PhD.
Annotation:Project aims to build novel botanical, environmental, mathematical and computational methods for determining exact localization and classification of Natura 2000 habitats and for monitoring their dynamics and qualitative changes by using satellite data and dedicated image processing software. The localization, classification and dynamic space-time monitoring will be based on novel methods for filtering, segmentation and tracking of Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, Sentinel-2 multispectral imaging data and their combination. The image processing software will allow accurate localization of Natura 2000 habitat areas in static and dynamic Earth observation data up to a precision of pixel resolution. Moreover, by the developed software we will be able to monitor continuously the habitat dynamics with alarming option in case of abrupt changes in condition or fragmentation of Natura 2000 protected areas. The methods and software will be developed for localization, classification and monitoring of Natura 2000 habitats in the territory of the Slovak Republic. As the other EU member states are also required to monitor their Natura 2000 habitats, and Slovak Vegetation Database, used for development of our methods and software, is compatible with the databases used in other countries, our methods and software will fit the European Vegetation Database and will have a strong potential to be used for identification and tracking Natura 2000 habitats at least at the European level.
Duration: 1.7.2017 - 30.6.2021
The mechanism of positional signalling in plants – understanding of the DEK1 pathway
Mechanizmus pozičnej signalizácie v rastlinách - pochopenie DEK1 dráhy
Program: SRDA
Project leader: doc. RNDr. Jásik Ján DrSc.
Annotation:Positional signalling plays instrumental role during plant growth and development. Positional cues control what type of cell will form (cell fate determination) and how big the cell will grow (cell expansion). Genetic studies identified membrane-anchored calpain protease DEFECTIVE KERNEL 1 (DEK1) as an essential regulator of plant growth and development. Our hypothesis is that DEK1 evolved both sensory and effector functions to control robust morphogenetic outputs such as cell expansion, asymmetric cell division and cell fate determination in response to local positional cues. The exact mechanism of DEK1 activation and signal transmission is unknown. Another crucial missing piece in our understanding of DEK1-mediated signaling is the identity of DEK1 molecular targets. In this project we aim to validate putative DEK1 substrate(s) and interacting partners, functionally characterize the role of phosphorylation in DEK1 activation and continue our efforts to solve the DEK1 3D structure. The project builds on published and recent unpublished work of the principal investigator and his collaborators. Unraveling the mechanism of DEK1 action will shed light on one of the key principles of developmental control in plants with broad implications for biotechnology and agriculture.
Duration: 1.8.2018 - 30.6.2022
Morpho-physiological, genetic and biochemical response of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) to heavy metal stress
Morfo-fyziologická, genetická a biochemická odpoveď rastlín láskavca (Amaranthus spp.) na stres vyvolaný ťažkými kovmi
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Hricová Andrea PhD.
Annotation:Heavy metal accumulation cause in plant tissue serious biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities and may interfere with crop productivity. The project aims at morpho-physiological, genetic, and biochemical responses of the grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) to heavy metal exposure, whereby able to deliver a valuable information about their phytoextraction potential and the reference to the impact of metals on bio-organics and nutritional quality. Moreover, gene expression analyses of amaranth genes already known to be responders to different abiotic stress types in response to heavy metal stress will contribute to understanding heavy metals-regulated gene expression and regulatory networks. The possible temporary endophytic bacterial diversity changes subjected to heavy metals will be assessed through metagenomic approach.
Duration: 1.1.2019 - 31.12.2021
NGS data in aquatic animal taxonomy: new approaches to researching the diversity of aquatic beetles in a time of massive global insect decline
NGS dáta v taxonómii vodných živočíchov: nové postupy vo výskume diverzity vodných chrobákov v čaase drastického celosvetového úbytku hmyzu
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Čiampor Fedor PhD.
Annotation:According to the latest information, we are possibly facing massive insect extinction, which may have catastrophic consequences for humans. Aquatic insects, inevitable for freshwater ecosystems functioning, are also critically endangered, but we do not know its real diversity and are thus not capable of effective protection. To improve this, we need better data and innovate approaches in the biodiversity research. This project is focused on the world's diversity of water beetles, and will be based on the already stored and newly collected (mainly in tropical regions) material. The main goal is to significantly improve knowledge of the diversity of studied taxa and contribute to their protection by combining standard (morphology, DNA barcoding), and High Throughput Sequencing. The project's innovation is in the use of DNA metabarcoding adjusted for taxonomy purposes. Expected outputs are new taxa, reference barcodes database and estimate of the trends in the evolution of the aquatic beetles diversity.
Duration: 1.1.2020 - 31.12.2023
Barley root responses to heavy metals: defense or toxicity. Chemical biology approach
Odpovede koreňov jačmeňa na ťažké kovy: obrana alebo toxicita. Aplikácia metód chemickej biológie
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Tamás Ladislav
Annotation:Adaptation of plants to the ever-changing environment requires the integration of many endogenous ontogenic and exogenous environmental signals. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and phytohormones are the central components of this integration process regulating plant development and stress responses. In addition, components of the same as well as the distinct signaling pathways intensively interact among themselves. In order to gain more insight into the role of these signaling pathways in the response of barley root to stress conditions, the aim of the present project is the analysis of function of some specific signaling components in stress responses, using chemical biology, a new and powerful approaches, to unravel mechanisms of plant adaptation processes. Using small synthetic bioactive molecules for blocking the specific components of stress responses could uncover the function of physiological and biochemical processes in the toxicity and defense responses of roots to heavy metals.
Duration: 1.1.2020 - 21.12.2023
Islands of continental saline vegetation in temperate Europe – what they have in common and in what they differ?
Ostrovy vnútrozemskej slanomilnej vegetácie v temperátnej zóne Európy – čo ich spája a čo delí?
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Dítě Daniel PhD.
Annotation:The project is aimed to study inland saline vegetation of temperate Europe. We expand our study area into 11 regions where saline vegetation occurs, from central Germany to the Transylvanian Basin and Harghita Mountains in Romania. We focus on the complex study of relevant abiotic (especially climate, soil characteristics, land use) and biotic factors that determine the optimal conditions and surviving potential of halophytes and their plant communities. The groundwork of the analyzes will be a list of obligatory and facultative halophytes recorded in each region and their habitat linkage throughout the individual islands of halophytic vegetation. We also summarize the results of vegetation development of 9 halophytic sites within the Podunajská nížina lowland in Slovakia. 64 permanent plots were established with different sizes and under several forms of management in order to evaluate the success of restoration techniques as topsoil removal and re-introduction of grazing.
Duration: 1.1.2020 - 31.12.2023
Potential of silicon for mitigation of arsenic and antimony toxicity in agricultural crops
Potenciál kremíka na zmiernenie toxicity arzénu a antimónu pri kultúrnych rastlinách
Program: SRDA
Project leader: RNDr. Luxová Miroslava CSc.
Annotation:Contamination by arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is not only a serious environmental problem in highly-industrialized countries of the world, however also in Slovakia, mainly due to mining and power industry. The sites contaminated by these elements can be found across the whole Slovakia, from Malé Karpaty Mountains, Horná Nitra region, Liptov region to surrounding of Košice city in east Slovakia. As and Sb belong to toxic and dangerous elements for all living organisms. Despite an intensive research in the last years there is still only limited knowledge about the effect and phytotoxicity of As and Sb, and especially on interaction of toxic (As, Sb) and beneficial (Si) metalloids in plants what is the research aspect of this project. Therefore, the main aim of this project is to obtain a complex characterization of beneficial effects of Si on toxicity of individual elements and their combination on molecular-biological, biochemical, anatomical-morphological and physiological level. As a model object, important agricultural crops will be investigated.
Duration: 1.8.2018 - 30.6.2022
The origin of polyploid complexes: the role of polyploidization, geographical and ecological isolation
Pôvod polyploidných komplexov: úloha polyploidizácie a geografickej a ekologickej izolácie
Program: SRDA
Project leader: prof. RNDr. Marhold Karol CSc.
Annotation:The main topics of the proposed project are microevolutionary and speciation processes in diploid-polyploid complexes belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Speciation both at the diploid and polyploid levels will be examined, elucidating the role of genome merge and duplication, geographical and ecological separation. The questions addressed have broader relevance, beyond the studied genera, and the answers can help us better understand processes underlying polyploid speciation as such. The methods applied in this project will include both conventional molecular systematics markers, as well as methods based on the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), namely restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and combination of target enrichment of low-copy nuclear genes and genome skimming (Hyb-seq). Using the multi-marker approach we expect to gain deeper insights into the studied species complexes and increased robustness of the results. As a complement, flow-cytometric, morphometric, and ecological and climatic niche analyses will be employed. In order to achieve these goals we have chosen four genera from three different tribes of the Brassicaceae family (Alysseae [Alyssum, Odontarrhena], Camelineae [Arabidopsis], Cardamineae [Cardamine]), representing different evolutionary lineages in this family. We will take the advantage of the wealth of methods that are available for and already tested in the closely related genus Arabidopsis, our previous long-term experience with the proposed study genera, and also previously collected plant material.
Duration: 1.8.2018 - 31.7.2022
Worlds in a world - from microcosms to ecosystems
Svet vo svete - od mikrokozmov k ekosystémom
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Svitková Ivana PhD.
Annotation:A good model system for ecological studies can be distinguished by low spatial variability (high replicabilty) and low stochasticity (high predictability). Aquatic ecosystems in phytotelmata are generally considered as excellent model systems to address various ecological theories (e.g., dynamics of metapopulations and metacommunities, island biogeography, food-web interactions). In temperate Europe, only small number of plant species exhibit morphological structures that would be able to hold water long enough to provide suitable conditions for development of aquatic communities, teasels (Dipsacus fullonum) being one of them. Beside some rather faunistic notes, very little is known about the ecosystem functioning in phytotelmata. Aims of the proposed project are to validate eligibility of phytotelmata as model systems, and to evaluate how the ongoing processes in phytotelmata affect the fitness of the whole teasel plants, what in turn can affect the character of a whole plant community itself.
Duration: 1.1.2020 - 31.12.2023
Systematics and phylogeny of the genus Dermoloma in Europe and North America
Systematika a fylogenéza rodu Dermoloma v Európe a Severnej Amerike
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Adamčík Slavomír PhD.
Annotation:Dermoloma is insufficiently known genus of basidiomycetes classified in the order Agaricales (Agaricomycotina). More than 30 species are described worldwide, but only few of them are generally accepted. Opinions about morphological delimitation and number of the species are very variable in the current literature. Traditionally, up to eight species are recognised, although more than 30 European species were described. Our preliminary phylogenetic study suggest existence of more than 25 molecular operation units in Europe that probably represent independent species. Aim of the project is to define European and North American Dermoloma species by means of molecular and morphological methods and to assign them correct names. Fungi of the genus Dermoloma are essential part of grassland ecosystems and accordingly this project will deal with studies of environmental soil samples. We will look for suitable metabarcode for identification of species using next generation sequencing (metagenomics).
Duration: 1.1.2018 - 31.12.2021
Taxonomy of families Elmidae, Protelmidae and Dryopidae (Insecta: Coleoptera)
Taxonómia čeľadí Elmidae, Protelmidae a Dryopidae
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Čiampor Fedor PhD.
Annotation:Beetles of the families Elmidae, Protelmidae and Dryopidae are adapted with their morphology and physiology primarily to life in the aquatic environment. Rather exceptionally are some Dryopidae from the wet tropics terrestrial (e.g. Sostea, Geoparnus, Spalacosostea, Monstrosostea).
The biodiversity of these groups and their evolutionary history are still poorly known, despite their almost cosmopolitan distribution and great importance in eco-environmental research. This project deals with taxonomy and reconstruction of phylogeny of studied beetles by a complex molecular-morphological approach. It is focused on the systematic position of the questionable and newly described taxa, and recognition of evolutionary patterns in the phylogeny of Elmidae, Protelmidae and Dryopidae.
Duration: 1.1.2019 - 31.12.2022
Traditional ecological knowledge for grassland conservation and restoration
Tradičné ekologické poznatky pre ochranu a obnovu travinno-bylinných biotopov
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Janišová Monika PhD.
Annotation:Recent crisis in biodiversity conservation of high nature value grasslands and failures of the Common Agriculture Policy of the EU ask for new effective solutions. Semi-natural grasslands evolved through a long-lasting low-intensity human land use, thus their biodiversity can be most effectively preserved by simulation of traditional agricultural practices. In the project we focus on a detail analysis of grassland phytodiversity in close relation with its historical development and traditional land use. The regions of the Eastern and Central Europe with well maintained traditional rural culture belong to the key study areas. Obtaining of high-value biological, ecological and ethnological data on the selected sites should guarantee the proper interpretation of the gathered traditional ecological knowledge. This can become a valuable scientific material for future adjustment of socio-political mechanisms in the realm of grassland conservation and restoration and sustainable land use.
Duration: 1.1.2019 - 31.12.2022
Aliens among us: Spatio-temporal dynamics of plant invasions and their adverse impact on ecosystem
Votrelci medzi nami: Časovo-priestorová dynamika rastlinných invázií a ich nepriaznivý dopad na ekosystémy
Program: SRDA
Project leader: Ing. Hrivnák Richard PhD.
Annotation:Plant invasions are an ongoing process threatening biodiversity at the species, habitat and landscape levels. The unique composition of alien flora at a regional level is mainly influenced by climate and cultural factors. The proposed project focuses on the environmental background of plant invasions in Slovakia (covers a substantial part of the Western Carpathians and an adjacent part of the Pannonia) which has been studied in this region only marginally so far. Dynamics of plant invasions will be studied in riparian vegetation along rivers that play a dominant role in the natural spreading of invasive plants. Using time series of vegetation, seed bank, and soil properties, we will reveal spatio-temporal changes in riparian ecosystems which will be further linked with environmental and human factors. Based on field and revised herbarium data, we will reveal the ecological demands of model invasive plant groups (Fallopia japonica agg. and Solidago canadensis agg.) and estimate their potential distribution under current and future climate conditions. An integrative approach will be used to study the impact of plant invasions on semi-natural grasslands which represent the most invaded non-anthropogenic habitats in Slovakia. We will compare multiple-taxa diversity (plants, bryophytes, fungi - by environmental DNA sequencing, molluscs and soil invertebrates) in non-invaded plots and in plots invaded by F. japonica agg. or S. canadensis agg. Further analyses of soil properties, seed bank, microbial activity, and fungal trophic structure will shed light on changes of belowground ecosystem processes at studied plots. We will also conduct a field experiment to study the impact of invasive plants on the decomposition of leaf litter. Such a study with exceptionally broad coverage of taxonomic and methodological approaches will provide a unique look at the plant invasion process and enable us to reveal, besides general trends, also species or group-specific patterns
Duration: 1.7.2020 - 30.6.2024
The impact of hybridisation on diversification and speciation processes in Carpathian members of the genus Soldanella
Vplyv hybridizácie na diverzifikačné a speciačné procesy u Karpatských zástupcov rodu Soldanella
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Slovák Marek PhD.
Annotation:The project addresses the impact of hybridization on the diversification and overall demographic structure of mountain-dwelling species of the genus Soldanella. The study design is focused on species occupying the genus diversity centre, specifically mountain regions of the Carpathians and adjacent areas (Bohemian Massif, NE Alps and east Balkan mountain ranges). To resolve proposed questions, we will employ a combination of modern methods and analytical tools including novel genomic approaches such as the RAD sequencing, karyological, cytogenetic, morphological and ecological analyses. Outcomes of the project will enable to uncover frequency and intensity of gene flow among studied taxa and specify factors and processes which have triggered or prevented hybridization (introgression) among pairs of closely and more distantly related species. We should also elucidate whether hybridisation contributed to the accumulation of novel lineages and facilitated speciation events in the genus.
Duration: 1.1.2019 - 31.12.2022
The application of myrosinase for sulforaphane activation in development of a novel product exhibiting cancer prevention effects
Využitie myrozinázy na aktiváciu sulforafanu pre vývoj preparátu s preventívnymi účinkami nádorových ochorení
Program: SRDA
Project leader: Ing. Jopčík Martin PhD.
Annotation:Effects of sulphoraphane on cencer prevention was already proven. Sulforaphane is often presents in food at the non-effective level for fulfillment the prevention effects. In addition, the natural glucosinolate form of sulforaphane, glucorafanine, is much less effective, therefore its activation to sulforaphane is needed. This conversion is catalysed by enzyme, myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147). Aim of the current project is to design the new product based on sulforaphane-glucosinolate and stabilized myrosinase as combine product.
Duration: 1.7.2017 - 30.6.2021
Changes in biodiversity in an urban fragmented landscape
Zmeny biodiverzity v urbánne fragmentovanej krajine
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Čejka Tomáš PhD.
Annotation:The project deals with changes in biodiversity in an urban environment in two ways: in the space (ecological gradients, fragmentation of habitats) and time (historical data). For study, we chose two ecologically linked model groups: vascular plants and land snails. Based on the research of these model organisms, we will solve five main points: [1] How the urban fragmented woodland fits principles of the island biogeography and what is the impact of the fragmentation and env. variables on the biota structure and variability. [2] Whether and to what extent the genetic diversity of the populations of selected model species varies in long-term continuously forested areas comparing the neorefugia; [3] How the urban environment impacts in time and space on the diversity of indigenous species; [4] On the basis of the theory of refugia verify what is the ecol.l traits structure of biota in the remains of forest vegetation; [5] Whether biotic homogenization occurs and which groups of biota are most affected by biotic homogenisation.
Duration: 1.1.2018 - 31.12.2021

The total number of projects: 26