In: Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, vol. 60, no. 4
Lubomir Lichner - Ladislav Holko - Natalia Zhukova - Karsten Schacht - Kálmán Rajkai - Nándor Fodor - Renáta Sándor
Rok, strany: 2012, 309 - 0
Sandy Soil, Vegetation, Water Repellency, Hydrophysical Parameters, Water Flow.
URL originálneho zdroja: http://www.ih.savba.sk/jhh
This study tested the hypothesis that the changes in hydrophysical parameters and heterogeneity of water flow in an aeolian sandy soil have the same trend as the process of succession. Three sub-sites were demarcated at the area of about 50 m x 50 m. The first sub-site was located at the pine-forest glade covered with a biological soil crust and represented the initial stage of succession. The second sub-site was located at the grassland and represented more advanced stage of succession. The third sub-site was located at the pine forest with 30-year old Scots pines and represented advanced stage (close to climax) of succession. The sandy soil at the surface was compared to the soil at the pine-forest glade at 50 cm depth, which served as a control because it had a similar texture but limited impact of vegetation or organic matter. It was found that any type of vegetation cover studied had a strong influence on hydrophysical parameters and heterogeneity of water flow in an aeolian sandy soil during hot and dry spells. The changes in some hydrophysical parameters (WDPT, R, k(–2 cm), Sw(–2 cm), ECS and DPF) and heterogeneity of water flow in an aeolian sandy soil had the same trend as the process of succession, but it was not so in the case of Ks and Se(–2 cm), probably due to the higher content of smaller soil particles in grassland soil in comparison with that content at other sub-sites. Both the persistence and index of water repellency of pure sand differed significantly from those of grassland, glade and forest soils. The highest repellency parameter values in forest soil resulted in the lowest value of both the water sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity in this soil in comparison with other soils studied. The highest value of ethanol sorptivity and the lowest value of saturated hydraulic conductivity in the grassland soil in comparison with other soils studied were due to the higher content of fine-grained (silt and clay) particles in the grassland soil. The effective cross section and the degree of preferential flow of pure sand differed significantly from those of grassland, glade and forest soils. The change in soil hydrophysical parameters due to soil water repellency resulted in preferential flow in the grassland, glade and forest soils, while the wetting front in pure sand area exhibited a form typical of that for stable flow. The latter shape of the wetting front can be expected in the studied soils in spring, when soil water repellency is alleviated substantially. The columnar shape of the wetting front, which can be met during heavy rains following long dry and hot spells, was attributed to redistribution of applied water on the surface to a series of micro-catchments, which acted as runon and runoff zones.