Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press
Volume 33, 2001, No. 5, p. 417-532
Katedra politológie FF UK, Bratislava
Poverty of Romanies in connection with the labour force market in the Slovak republic. The essay about ”The poverty and the labour force market” is a part of a wider economic and sector analysis of poverty and qualitative research into Romany settlements, co-ordinated by World Bank in Slovakia (the survey carried out from December 2000 to March 2001). The analysis is focused on the essence and extent of poverty in connection with the labour force market and existing policies and programmes trying to regulate poverty of Romany population. Since the self-assertion in labour force market is a crucial factor influencing the poverty rate, the essay puts emphasis exactly on employment and work.
Even though there are no official statistical data about the status of Romanies in Slovakia after the year 1998 available, it is doubtless the ethnicity is in a high correlation with poverty. Our knowledge so far is confirming the fact of apparently higher poverty rate of Romany households compared to the non-Romany households. Likewise, there are other well-known specific features of poverty-stricken part of Romany population: low education standard, poor health, unacceptable living conditions, lack of access to basic infrastructure (running water, sewerage, electricity), as well as insufficient participation in executive power and interest representation.
The aim of the qualitative analysis of Romany settlements is to fill gaps in all available data and to create a realistic picture of living conditions and social protection of Romanies in Slovakia, and their access to social service.
The results of the qualitative analysis indicate it is not possible to approach Romany problem and Romany question as a unified issue. There is a wide inner differentiation among Romanies and this differentiation is not based on differentiation criteria applied to a majority society. Basic differentiation among Romany population is conditioned by following factors: Factor 1: state of region, factor 2: type of integration or possibly segregation, factor 3: concentration rate, total number, factor 4: majority society: Romany society ratio
In proportion to marginalisation degree of given regions of Slovakia, also poverty degree of certain population group, especially the Romany group, is increasing. In such regions, there are settlements, i.e. segregated communities where subjectively perceived absolute poverty can be found -defined by following criteria: non-existence of a decent housing, non-sufficient number of beds for household members, shortage of money for everyday food and clothing, non-existence of working social welfare network.
Social differentiation of Romanies is transferred into different life strategies, into taking or possibly non-taking chances and possibilities, and is displayed in all dimensions of social exclusion: economic, social, cultural, and political ones. The essay identifies main controversial issues of every above mentioned dimensions followed by possible solution proposals and measures to be taken on the systemic, as well as local and community levels. Problems and possible proposed solutions to the problems are specified institutionally, for individual social actors (state administration, local self-government, schools, churches, and non-governmental organisations).
Sociológia 2001, Vol. 33 (No. 5: 439-456)
Sociologický ústav SAV, Bratislava
Katedra sociální politiky a sociální práce, Brno
Migration of Roma from Slovakia in to the EU Countries - Reasons and Impulses. The article deals with a migration of Roma from Slovakia to EU countries during the period of 1998-1999. In connection with the research conducted in May - June 2000 author focuses upon reasons and impulses behind the Roma migration. The research has been conducted under auspices of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) Bratislava. Outputs of the research has been used by the IOM as one of knowledge basis for the arranging measures return of those who have not been granted asylum in the EU. In the course of the research activities following activities has been analysed: IOM data on asylum seekers, interviews with asylum seekers, interviews with Roma leaders, public administration officials and local government representatives.
Migration of Roma from Slovakia could be investigated and interpreted from different angles. Author interconnects migration primarily with socio-economic status of Roma in Slovakia. Author suggests locally based impulses for migration of Roma and stresses that only mass migration has been dominating during the field work. Author brings attention to the fact that mostly integrated Roma, thus those who were not living in segregated settlements, have been migrating into the EU countries.
The Roma path leading to emancipation and integration had significantly complicate after 1989. Author suggests that this can be proved mostly by the rate of unemployment of Roma since the beginning of 90´s, increasing numbers of Roma segregated settlements and increasing numbers of Roma living in these segregated settlements. Author suggests in connection with these facts, that majority of Roma have lost social status previously achieved during the pre-1989 era, moreover, those interviewed do not expect improvement of this situation. Reasons behind the losing ground of Roma are fuelled also by distrust of Roma toward majority population and its institutions and consequently by the perception of Roma to be discriminated against. Author assumes, that those who are perceived by the majority as a Roma, face structural discrimination. Another reason explaining dramatic falls down of Roma is antagonist patterns of behaviour of Roma that have been shaping up behaviour of those interviewed differently in the public and private spheres. One of the features of previously mentioned antagonism is the finding that Roma do not prefer adaptation and developmental strategies of problem solving (e.g. requalifications, improvement of qualification, entrepreneurial activities, labour migration, etc.), but rather defensive strategy of a mass migration. One of significant features of the mass migration from Slovakia has been its local character, mass migration was typical only for Roma from certain communities. In other communities Roma did prefer other defensive strategies.
Sociológia 2001, Vol. 33 (No. 5: 457-471)
Katedra kriminológie, Akadémia policajného zboru, Bratislava
Romanies and delinquency. As the title of the contribution suggests, the issue discussed here is extremely topical and serious one for contemporary society – delinquency of Romanies. The goal of this article has been to explain those important aspects of delinquency of Romanies, which are the most important ones for finding possible solutions to this problem. I concentrated on defining the notions, then on the characteristics of social-cultural peculiarities of Romany ethnical group, phenomenology of Romany minority delinquency, its aetiology and prevention.
In the initial part, I briefly outlined the most relevant tendencies of development of registered delinquency in Slovakia with emphasis on Romany delinquency. In this part I also explained those notions which are the most important with respect to the essay orientation.
Next part deals with social-cultural characteristics of Romany ethnical group with the aim of clarifying for readers those characteristics which help us to get a better view and understanding of specifics of Romany ethnical group, their life philosophy, style, family. Even though this analysis is short, it provides us a necessary insight into issue-the insight that is inevitable for complex recognition and understanding of delinquency of Romany minority, and its aetiology.
The section ”Romany ethnical group” constitutes a kind of historic overview of events influencing the lives and status of Romanies in Slovakia. These influences are projected into present and are forcing Romanies further into unemployment, poverty and inferior status in the Slovak society.
The above part is followed by the most important part of this contribution- the delinquency of Romanies. It begins with the analysis of the current state of things, structure and dynamics of Romany minority delinquency. My analysis based on available statistical data provides not only overall survey of Romany delinquency, but also an itemised list of most frequent crimes and criminal offences committed by Romanies between the years 1989-2000. In the final part of this section I briefly outlined typical features of Romany delinquency in the Slovak republic.
Aetiology of delinquency logically follows the analysis of Romany delinquency, stating the most relevant delinquency-stimulating factors of Romany minority, which help and facilitate the rise of criminal behaviour among members of this ethnical group.
A section dealing with prevention of Romany delinquency concludes the article. The sphere of the preventive activities is the most important part for finding an effective solution to this problem. I have to admit I have been unable to solve the problem that has been being solved without any visible results for many decades. In spite of this fact, I have tried to present the most relevant topics to which preventive activities should be primarily directed.
Sociológia 2001, Vol. 33 (No. 5: 473-490)
Katedra sociológie FF UK, Bratislava
Medzinárodné stredisko pre štúdium rodiny, Bratislava
Romanies (Gipsies) in Hungary at the end of the 19th century. One of the first Romany (Gipsy) inhabitants census was carried out as early as at the end of the 19th century in the Hungarian part of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. This contribution is a presentation of results of the above-mentioned census. This written record of the historic period is of a great importance in many aspects: it not only gives us priceless information about the life of Romany ethnic group members, but it also indicates clear effort to state ”clear” definitions of ethnical affiliation, i.e. to find an answer to the question: ”Who is a Romany?”
The census was intended to serve as a basic document in the process of a gradual adaptation of Romanies to a settled way of life, but it involved all the Romany communities (besides migratory ones also semi-migratory and settled ones) living on the then territory of Hungary. Besides basic demographical indicators (such as total number, age structure, regional dislocation), also housing conditions, literacy, ways of earning living, religious denomination, mother tongue and marital status of Romany population were surveyed. Readers were thus given information about conditions of everyday life of Romanies at the end of the 19th century- many then obtained data can be used even today as an important source for better explaining and understanding present realities of the life of Romany population.
Sociológia 2001, Vol. 33 (No. 5: 491-506)