Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press
Volume 34, 2002, No. 2, p. 97-192
Sociálne problémy / Social Problems
Z dejín sociologického myslenia / History of Sociological Thought
Informácie / Information
Recenzie / Reviews
Katedra sociológie FF UK a Sociologický ústav SAV, Bratislava
Beyond some questions of modernization theory. As more social theorists suggest (Fukuyama, Habermas), the 1989 revolutions should be considered as modernizing revolutions that have caused the 're-birth of history' or a return to 'mainstream' western development in societies of Central and Eastern Europe. Modernization theory is a very broad theoretical strategy that includes a variety of theories. This article inquires current understanding of modernization and its different theoretical roots. Four concepts of modernization are particularly stressed: 1. Modernization as the result of technological development and innovation; 2. Modernization as a change caused by introduction of new forms of social organization; 3. Universal spread of the pattern of 'present industrial society'; 4. Sum of globaly occuring evolutional changes leading to 'global cosmopolitan society'. Modernization is explained here not as an a priori given process but as a result of intense individual and socio-institutional activities that are characteristic for different ways of social development in particular countries.
Sociológia 2002 Vol. 4 (No. 2: 99-116)
Spoločenskovedný ústav SAV, Košice
Inter-Generational Changes of Ethnic Identity among the Members of Ethnically Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Families. The article informs about the results of interdisciplinary research conducted among the members of Slovak, German, Croatian and Bulgarian minority groups in Hungary.
The research is concerned with the issues of ethnic identification of members of Slovak minority living in Hungary. It is focused on the analysis of inter-generational relations of social identity within its specific macro-social context. The inter-generational relations were perceived as differences in the social identity among three groups - objects of evaluation: present generation of Slovak minority members and their precedent and next generations. A macro-social frame of identity was delineated as a measure of adherence to large social formations such as city, region, majority and minority group, ”mother” nation and state.
The preliminary research results pointed to the stark differences in the identification with particular social formations from the perspective of evaluated objects. The Slovak respondents evaluated present generation, their predecessors and descendants differently in all monitored characteristics. Thus, the significance of the object of evaluation upon the measure of identification and perception of adherence to social formations was confirmed. Differentiated evaluation of all three objects of evaluation had various character and directions.
Sociológia 2002 Vol 34 (No 2: 117-130)
Katedra padagogiky FF UK, Bratislava
Social-Psychological Aspects of Female Criminality. The article analyses the low rates of female criminality as related to much higher rates of male criminality. It purports to bring together biological, psychological and sociological insights, which explain the factors behind the low rates of female criminality and its future developmental trends.
The research results revealed a different acceptance of antisocial behaviour among the girls and among the boys. The issue of inter-sexual differences and criminality is far from being solved. It still draws the attention of social scientists to the different receptions of social norms among men and women as well as to other explanatory variables of higher crime rates among male population. Answering such questions might lead to the more efficient means of criminality prevention.
Sociológia 2002 Vol 34 (No. 2: 131-144)
Ľudovít Turčan, Eva Laiferová
Sociologický ústav SAV, Bratislava, Katedra sociológie FF UK, Bratislava
Four Paradigms of Slovak Sociology after 1948. After 1989, the research devoted to the histories of so called ”small” sociologies assumed a particular significance. Despite various ”end of history”, the history continues to create and form new, independent and autonomous societies - new social formations.
The history of each new society created the preconditions for its current societal development. The historical reflections within the field of history of sociology identified certain phases, which were crucial for the transformation of societal preconditions into their actual developments.
The historians Slovak sociology gradually developed general schemes of its particular development in relation to the societal development. The authors recognised four paradigmatic patterns in the development of Slovak sociology: 1. The paradigm of continuity and discontinuity of Slovak sociology, 2. The paradigm of its liquidation, 3. The paradigm of its public and concealed existence, 4. The paradigm of the development of sociology as a science and its ideological abuse.
Sociológia 2002 Vol 34 (No 2: 145-158)