Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press
Volume 32, 2000, No. 1, pp. 1-136
Katedra sociológie výchovy a sociológie mládeže Pedagogickej fakulty UK, Bratislava
Issues of Globalisation: New Views on the Society and the Youth? The process of supranational and suprastate globalisation became a policy issue in many developed countries of the world. In variety of its dimensions, globalisation represents a new plurality of relations between the state and the society, overcoming their traditional territorial unity. In this sense it means the breaking of the unity of national state and national society. Globalisation of society leads only to a global society, not to global state or even global government. There are considered at least ten sources of the globalisation of society, transcending the original territorial and state characteristics. The four accompanying signs of globalisation are criminality, tourism, military research and especially the youth, supporting the idea of globalisation. The process of the globalisation of society is synchronised with the process of its regionalisation, as well as the processes of integration and centralisation are concurrently accompanied with the processes of fragmentation and decentralisation. A new term can be proposed - ”glocalisation” - which express the mutual conjunction of globalisation and localisation (regionalisation). The development of the European countries confirms the hypothesis about the denationalisation of so called national societies. In the conclusion, author appeals to analyse the process of globalisation of what was until now called the Slovak society within the framework of global and interdisciplinary knowledge.
Sociológia 2000 Vol. 32 (No. 1: 31-42)
Katedra kulturologie, Filosofická fakulta University Karlovy v Praze
Transformation of Cultural Identity within the Process of European Integration (The Problem of Cultural and Social Changes in Czech Local Communities). The article is based on the results of socio-cultural empirical researches on cultural and social changes in local communities in Czech Republic. The research project analysed the cultural and social adaptation of urban communities in the processes of transformation, which take place throughout the whole society, focusing on the expectancies related to the integration of Czech Republic to European structures. Higher degree of social stratification and cohered social and cultural changes of different level and weight accompany processes of transformation in urban communities (presenting special local communities). The culture and the education function in these processes as stabilising factors because of the cultural and educational tradition; stable system of values and practical cultural life characterised by the proportionate stability of cultural patterns and models.
Sociológia 2000 Vol. 32 (No. 1: 43-56)
Sociologický ústav SAV, Bratislava
National Identity as Narrative Construction. Article analyses how historical narratives in grammar school textbooks produce Slovak national identity. The state controlled educational system is considered to be one of the most efficient national socialisation institutions. The analysis of the construction of national identity is based on the comparison of narratives of Slovak Early Middle Ages history as they appeared in history textbooks between 1954 and 1994. Author discusses the well-known paradox of the nation imagined as an antique, continual community and its scientific perception as a relatively modern phenomenon. Though being argued that the imagined national continuity and antiquity are indispensable components of any active national identity, it is shown that such national imagining, as it appeared in textbooks published after the birth of the independent Slovak Republic, fails to fulfil the crucial function of national identity – integration. An attention is also given to the inconsistent and ambivalent nature of national imagining, which nevertheless makes nationalism the driving political force of the modern human history.
Sociológia 2000, Vol 32 (No. 1: 57-79)
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy, Praha
The Public and the Crime Rates in the Czech Republic: Trends of Development. The author considers his own concept of the “patient society” in relation to the development in the CR after 1989. After first wave of crime rates increase (index 3.3) and after short term period (1994-1996) of stabilisation, last year there was a 5% rise in crime. However the level of fear of crime remained unchanged. The problem of crime continues to top the ladder of perceived contemporary problems, but the weight attached to economic factors in the context of economic recession is increasing. The trust in institutions continues to be among the stabilising elements, and there have been no striking changes in the area of punitive or xenophobic attitudes. Public satisfaction with the work of the police has even slightly increased. More significant social differentiation in attitudes to crime and trust in institutions have been identified: both trust and willingness to co-operate with the police, for example, correlating positively with social status. Research on victimisation confirms its growth among the highest social strata as well as a slight increase among the lowest strata (the average for the whole population is roughly 30% victims of crime over the year). The most interesting finding is bright difference in level of fear related to place of residence. While fear of crime is naturally higher in the large towns, the pattern is different in Prague. The inhabitants of Prague have currently adapted to their clearly higher level of crime and that a kind of more general trend, the effect of “risk normalisation” is at work there. The deepening social differentiation of society in relation to the phenomenon of crime is beginning to be reflected in the attitudes of youth and is making it essential to consider the question of more comprehensive and multifactorial sociological analysis and explanation.
The respondents from the survey of the Czech population cited (1998, N=1719), expressed the greatest fear of economic (property) crime, and in doing so were reacting relatively realistically. Nevertheless, the ”realism” of the public opinion ought not to be regarded as the main criterion for the evaluation of practical policies. The results confirm the plausibility of Merton’s concept of anomie (in the respect of relative social deprivation), and one cannot therefore rule out the shift of a previously stabilised and patient Czech public to reactions that might be described as “intimidated”, “stressed”, or even “wild”.
Sociológia 2000, Vol. 32 (No. 1: 80-97)
Fakulta sociálních studií MU v Brně
The Importance of Micro – Social Organisation for Working of the Welfare State. Article argues that people who are unable to deal with their living situations usually have a lack of capacity to assess and utilise possibilities that are offered by the specialised welfare state services and benefits. This is true in terms of understanding the welfare state programmes as well as in terms of defining individual priorities and selecting appropriate possibilities. Informal networks and specialised agencies can help these people to utilise the welfare state programmes. The effective implementation and working of these programmes depends on the quality of micro-social organisation.
Sociológia 2000 Vol. 32 (No. 1: 98-102)
Filozofická fakulta UK, Bratislava
The Development of Local Television in Slovakia. Cable television networks, which broadcast local televisions, had been built in Slovakia since 1989. In 1998 there were approximately 220 cable networks in operation and on average every fourth network broadcast local television, especially in cities such as Martin, Bratislava, Prešov, Košice, Nováky, and many others.
Local broadcasts are widely followed and they contribute to the participation of citizens in the management of public affairs. These broadcasts have a deep impact on the development of local civil society, culture, and lifestyle in general. This medial subsystem develops in Slovakia very rapidly, in spite of obsolete legislation and efforts of state bureaucratic institutions to regulate local broadcasts. The development is also limited by economic problems and the quality of local broadcasts is determined by limited professional skills of their employees. Independent local broadcasts are also endangered by strong influence of local power structures and economic subjects, dominating in the area. However, increase in the quantity and quality of local television broadcasts in Slovakia can be soon expected.
Sociológia 2000 Vol. 32 (No. 1: 111-122)
Filozofický ústav SAV, Bratislava
Towards one view on social life. The aim of this paper is to examine main claims by P. Sýkora regarding socio-biology as a new paradigma for social sciences and humanities. The author tries to show why Sykora fails to provide serious and justified evidence for an acceptance of socio-biology as methodological paradigm for social knowledge. The point is related with his misunderstanding of differences between so-called brute facts and social or institutional facts on the other hand. From this point of view are examined and critized Sýkora´s presentation of the case for the defence of principles of socio-biology.
Sociológia 2000 Vol. 32 (No. 1: 123-130)