Vedecké časopisy a ročenky vydávané na pôde SAV

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Geografický časopis

Volume 58, 2006, No. 4


  Geospatial analysis of southern pine biome and pollen distribution patterns in Southeastern United States
Peter Šiška 1), Vaughn M Bryant Jr. 2), I-Kuai Hung 3)

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1)Mapping Sciences Laboratory, TX77843-2120, USA.
2)Palynology Laboratory (TAMU 4352), Texas A&M University, TX 77843, USA.
3)College of Forestry and Agriculture, Stephen F. Austin University, TX 75962, USA.

southern yellow pines, pollen rain, biomes, spatial analysis, splines, zonal statistics, Southeastern Unites States

The spatial relationship between the parent plants and the distribution of their pollen rain is extremely important for the survival and health of natural ecosystems. In our modern societies there is a continuous and extensive need for wood products, therefore, the health and productivity of the forest ecosystems should be primary concerns for practitioners and researchers. Southern yellow pine forested biomes consist of four major pine species that have been extremely important as American timber sources and as income for the lumber industry. Currently, the intensive harvesting and exploitation of southern pine forests have created a series of highly fragmented forest biome regions. As the distance between individual forest patches increases, the potential intensity of gene transfer decreases. The result is forested patches with limited gene plasticity, which can affect the health of individual trees and of the natural forested ecosystems. The purpose of this research is to establish correlation between spatial distributions of pine forest biome and dispersion of pine pollen. Once the relationship between the pollen rain distributional data and the vegetational biomes are determined, then those correlations will enable researchers to produce projected pollen rain distribution maps for certain regions of North America where existing pollen rain data is absent.

Geografický časopis. Volume 58, 2006, No. 4: 239-258.

  Economic growth and territorial cohesion in CEECs: what changes for local development?
Giancarlo Cotella 1)

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1)Politecnico di Torino, DITer–Dipertimento Interateneo Territorio, Viale Mattioli 39, 101 25 Torino, Italy.

territorial cohesion, economic growth, CEECs, transition, local development, decentralization, meta-governance

Whereas the goals of territorial cohesion and economic growth are in many cases considered equally important aims, it seems uneasy to met the requirements of both at the same time, as they might be conflicting, sometimes even contradictory. Bearing this in mind is worth to analyse potentialities and threats surrounding the territorial cohesion principle, trying to underline where major vulnerabilities undermining the principle lie. The spatial focus of the paper is directed on Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs), in desperate need of both triggering national economic growth and achieving internal territorial cohesion. Unfolding the tensions between the two concepts, the need for a multi-scalar approach to smooth them become evident, as in order to foster economical development in regions hardly targeted by strong economical investments, the engine of the development should be mainly based on local initiatives, less spatially selective. Whether at the national level it is possible to pursue national economic growth, in order to obtain growth benefits’ diffusion it is important to promote bottom-up initiatives. A key role can therefore be played by local communities, embedded for 40 years in a rigid hierarchical structure, and now experimenting a new era of autonomy.

Geografický časopis. Volume 58, 2006, No. 4: 259-277.

  Půdy a dlouhodobé změny využití ploch Česka
Jan Kabrda 1), Ivan Bičík 1), Luděk Šefrna 1)

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1)Katedra sociální geografie a regionálního rozvoje, PF UK, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha.

structure of land use, long-term land use change, soils, Czechia

The authors of this article used the original LUCC UK Prague database to assess the dependence of the state and development of areas of eight land-use categories together with the overall structure of land use on the distribution of two soil types: chernozems and acid soils. The constructed methodological approach enables us, with a certain generalization, to express the development of land use structure in 8903 comparable Basic Territorial Units (BTUs) of Czechia in four time horizons: 1845, 1948, 1990 and 2000. The results show a significant difference in land-use structure between BTUs with prevailing chernozems and those with mostly acid soils. The development of land use structure between these groups was different as well. We found especially a striking intensity of land use changes on acid soils (grassing-over of arable land) in the transformation period (after the year 1990).

Geografický časopis. Volume 58, 2006, No. 4: 279-301.

  Tektonické formy severnej časti Slovenského stredohoria
Ján Urbánek 1)

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1)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava.

neotectonic hypothesis, geomorphic line, block, arch, tectonic line

The author analyses a set of geomorphologic dividing lines in the northern part of the Slovenské stredohorie. He identifies geomorphic lines and spatial compositions formed by crossing lines. The system of lines in the northern part of the Slovenské stredohorie is also analysed for the dome of the Western Carpathians. The author concludes with the hypothesis that young tectonic movements have formed the system of geomorphic lines studied here.

Geografický časopis. Volume 58, 2006, No. 4: 303-316.

  Stav plného koryta a jeho význam pre poznávanie a manažment morfológie vodných tokov
Anna Grešková 1), Milan Lehotský 1)

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1)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava.

bankfull stage, bankfull discharge, bankfull hydraulic geometry, channel adjustment, changes of channel morphology

The paper is devoted to explanation of some theoretical and methodological aspects of the bankfull concept. The present world fluvial geomorphology is focused on the analysis of „physical condition“ of the riverbed, which is determined and controlled by combination of global, general laws and relationships mostly independent on time and/or place factors. The key concept of bankfull and its parameters are considered relevant water stream characteristics not only in hydrological and morphological terms. Knowing them is crucial for applications in a wide spectrum of problems starting with the solutions involved with the balanced state of fluvial systems including their development, behaviour and changes and ending with improvement of the river ecosystems and water stream management. The aim of the paper is to explain the meaning of basic terms, to describe the methods and procedures applied to identification, computation or estimation of bankfull and to point to their applicability in research into the behaviour, changes and development of riverbed morphology.

Geografický časopis. Volume 58, 2006, No. 4: 317-328.

  Trvalo udržateľný rozvoj spoločnosti ako predmet výskumu na Geografickom ústave SAV
Mikuláš Huba 1)

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1)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava.

sustainable development, research, education, indicators, strategies, Institute of Geography of the SAS

Sustainable development (hereinafter “SD”) also addresses science, research and education. It represents an important challenge for the sciences that emphasize integrated or holistic approaches to the environment and all relevant systems involved with the subject of geographical research and environmental sciences. Four grant projects have been worked on continually since 1994 at the Institute of Geography of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (IG SAS) focused on elaboration of the SD concept in terms of geography. Solutions to the other two are underway at present. The Institute is among the leading scientific centres in this field in Slovakia with considerable international effects. The focus of the studies lay in elaboration and application of the SD criteria and indicators for varied model territories and activities and subsequent drafting of SD strategies. Parallel research took place in axiological aspects of the SD issue.

Geografický časopis. Volume 58, 2006, No. 4: 329-351.

  Hlavné smery a problémy výskumu súčasnej politickej geografie
Ján Buček 1)

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1)Katedra humánnej geografie a demogeografie, Prírodovedecká fakulta UK, Mlynská dolina 1, 842 15 Bratislava.

political geography, directions, problems, state, territory, geopolitics, electoral geography, public policy

The main research directions and problems were identified after careful analyses of the structure and content of leading textbooks and review papers in political geography. Among the main research directions we can find – geopolitics; geography of international relations, world political and economic system; political geography of the state; electoral geography, democracy and representation; political geography of regional and local level; geography of public policy and theoretical issues in political geography. Within these fields of study, the following main problems were identified – territory, borders and territorial divisions; conflict, war/peace and terrorism; justice, ethics and human rights; identity and minorities; gender and feminist issues; environmental issues; policy innovations and governance; other actors (private sector, non-profit sector, media and information-tele-communication technologies).

Geografický časopis. Volume 58, 2006, No. 4: 353-371.