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Geografický časopis


Volume 57, 2005, No. 2

Content:


  Geoštatistický koncept priestorovej závislosti pre geografické aplikácie
Tomáš Hlásny 1)

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1)Lesnícky výskumný ústav,, T. G. Masaryka 22, 960 92 Zvolen. hlasny@nlcsk.org


spatial autocorrelation/dependence, variogram, regionalized variable, anisotropy, intrinsic hypothesis, second-order stationarity hypothesis

One of the most important components of applied geographical research is the detailed analysis and exact quantification of spatial structure. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and exhaustive explanation of fundamental concepts and methods in geostatistical research including empirical and theoretical variograms, covariograms, correlograms and their parameters such as sill, range and nugget effect. In addition, robust variograms and various aspects of spatial anisotropy are discussed. The paper also focuses on intrinsic and second order stationary hypotheses that are one of the fundamental principles in geostatistical theory. The discussion of geostatistical concepts is illustrated practically using spatial data from several case studies in Slovakia. The ISATIS and GSTATS packages provided the proper environment for such an analysis. The results from this analysis will allow a profound understanding of the fundamental geostatistical concepts and their significance for the spatial analysis of numerous geographical and natural resource phenomena.

Geografický časopis. Volume 57, 2005, No. 2: 97-116.

 
  Suburban and peripheral rural areas in Poland: the balance of development in the transformation period
Jerzy Bański 1)

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1)Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa, Poland. jbanski@twarda.pan.pl


rural areas, suburban zones, peripheral areas, Poland

The article speaks about the rural areas located in the suburban zone of big agglomerations and the peripheral regions. It provides an analysis of the changes in those areas after 1990, during the period of system transformation and the adjustment of the Polish economy to the European Union is requirements. Special attention is devoted to population processes and related phenomena. Besides generally acceptable statistical data, other data collected during field research in communes representing suburban and peripheral areas was used. The results of field research were also a basis of verification for general conclusions. The main conclusion of the paper is that the period of the last fifteen years has widened the gap in terms of economic and demographic development between both types of analysed areas. The dynamic development of rural areas located close to cities was accompanied by a very slow development or even stagnation of the peripheral regions.

Geografický časopis. Volume 57, 2005, No. 2: 117-130.

 
  Analýza vybraných parametrov povodia z hľadiska výskytu prívalových povodní
Anna Grešková 1)

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1)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava. greskova@savba.sk


flash floods, small basins, storm rainfall, catchment conditions, physical basin characteristics, flood intensifying factors, environmental control of hydrological processes

The aim of the paper is to identify the effect and clarify the share of selected basin parameters (risk factors), which contribute to the increased effect of storm rainfall and eventually flash floods. It contains analysis of morphometric and geometrical characteristics of small basins struck by flash floods. The following characteristics describing the relief morphometry were evaluated: mean sea level altitude, maximum sea level altitude, minimum sea level altitude, the difference between sea level altitudes, maximum inclination and mean inclination in the direction of gradient line. Surface, shape of basin and length of water dividing line were the geometrical basin characteristics considered. Several characteristics of the river network, which are closely related not only to the basin shape, but which jointly affect the magnitude and form of floods are pointed to. Basins with occurrence of flash floods and the selected basin parameters contributing to their origin are identified through application of the existing digital network of small basins in Slovakia and the database of their physical characteristics. A set of 77 small basins with occurrence of flash floods in the years 1997-2002 is evaluated.

Geografický časopis. Volume 57, 2005, No. 2: 131-144.

 
  Teoretické aspekty hodnotenia renaturačného potenciálu povodia
Ján Hanušin 1)

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1)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava. geoghanu@savba.sk


rehabilitation, integrated basin management, landscape potential

One of the tools to repair a damaged natural environment is rehabilitation to simulate the potential ecosystem to a certain extent. Rehabilitation is mostly aimed at the river stream or the alluvial plain. Rehabilitation of streams or alluvial plains without elimination of negative processes ongoing in the basin is not efficient. This is why rehabilitation ob basins is considered the decisive tool for improving the qualitative and quantitative properties of the hydrological cycle. As the interest in application of reconstructive procedures in the landscape with the aim to improve its properties has increased, the author presents the outlined methodology of basin rehabilitation potential assessment (RPB). RPB is the property of the cultural landscape (basin) that expresses the size and scope of measures necessary for restoration of the optimal functioning of the basin landscape system, result of which is the determination of the RPB size. Scale of processing (size of basin) is distinguished. The basic methodical steps include the establishment of natural landscape sensitivity, establishment of the existing and proposed anthropization rate in the hydrological basin cycle, establishment of the existing and proposed loading levels of the hydrological cycle. RPB is determined by comparison of the existing and proposed level of loading of the hydrological cycle. RPB assessment is important for the decision making sphere as the information about the state of the basin and about the need and size of interventions needed for restoration of the disturbed hydrological cycle.

Geografický časopis. Volume 57, 2005, No. 2: 145-161.

 
  Hodnotenie krajinnej pokrývky v procese implementácie agro-environmentálnych programov
Monika Kopecká 1)

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1)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava. geogmari@savba.sk


land cover, agri-environmental indicator, monitoring, land cover changes

After Slovakia became a member of the European Union, there is a growing need to monitor land cover changes as a result of the realization of agri-environmental programmes belonging to the key instruments of the Common Agricultural Policy to protect the environment. Research into a concept of sustainable use of agricultural landscape is closely related to the development of indicator framework for quantifying and valuation of the impacts of agricultural practice on the environment. The aim of the article is to describe the role of land cover as the agri-environmental indicator (AEI). It reviews some of the theoretical issues relating to AEI classifications and shows the indicators that can be used in the process of evaluation of land cover changes at the regional scale.

Geografický časopis. Volume 57, 2005, No. 2: 163-182.