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Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review


Volume 49, 2017, No. 1

Content:


 

nekrológ:

 
  Sociológ aj slovenskej kultúry. Za Zygmuntom Baumanom
Miroslav Tížik

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Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 49, 2017, No. 1: 139-144.

 
 

recenzia:

 
  Horák, Jiří: Dechristianizace českých zemí. Sekularizace jako záměr
Alexandra Matejková

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Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 49, 2017, No. 1: 145-149.

 
  Schenk, Juraj: Znaky, indikátory a indexy v sociologickom výskume
Marek Mathias

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Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 49, 2017, No. 1: 150-152.

 
 

štúdia:

 
  Návratnost terciárního vzdělávání v růstu kompetencí a platu: mezinárodní srovnání
Petra Anýžová

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skills; tertiary education; labour market outcomes; degree programs; structural modelling

This paper is pursuing two main objectives. Firstly, to map the impact of higher education on shaping literacy and numeracy cognitive competencies. And secondly, to compare the financial returns to tertiary bachelor and master education and cognitive skills acquired at this level of education among 17 countries participating in the international survey of adult skills PIAAC (2011 – 2012). Particular emphasis is placed on assessing the returns to various fields of study. For the purpose of international comparison, structural modelling was applied. The results confirm that, conditional on age and gender, the contributions of the university degree to literacy and numeracy skills are greater in countries with high innovation potential (e.g. Finland, Japan) than in countries with low innovation potential (e.g. Russia, Slovakia). As expected, countries with a high innovation potential exhibit lower financial returns both at the level of bachelor studies (9-20 % salary increase) and master's degree studies (20-35 %). In contrast, in countries with a lower innovation potential the returns to bachelor studies fluctuates under the same conditions between 25-40 % of salary increase and master degree studies around 30-50 %. The increase of cognitive skills across the European countries is very similar, ranging around 10 % (conditional on education), providing that the increase in the numeracy competencies affects the wage conditions slightly more favorably than the increase in reading skills. Another important finding is that in countries with lower innovation potential, controlling for measured competencies, the returns to humanities and social-science disciplines often exceed (by around 8 %) the returns to technical subjects while in countries with the highest innovation potentials returns to technical fields is around 17 % higher than returns to humanities and social sciences. In the future it can be expected that in transitive countries, hand in hand with the economic development, the financial returns to university degree fields of study may change significantly.

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 49, 2017, No. 1: 5-36.

 
  Vliv podoby exekutivní koalice na následné volební výsledky. Česká komunální politika v letech 1994 – 2014 jako výzkum-né pole
Stanislav Balík

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executive coalitions; elections; political parties; local politics; party convergence; Czech Republic

This article focuses on the topics related to the research of the party convergence and its impact on the election results. At the research field of the Czech municipal politics we try to answer the question whether voters behave differently towards the members of grand and other coalitions in the next elections and whether that behaviour changes in time. The impact of the coalition behaviour to the election results of the four strongest political parties at the municipal level in twenty years between 1994 and 2014 is studied.

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 49, 2017, No. 1: 37-54.

 
  Process tracing: zkoumání kauzality v případových studiích
Jaromír Mazák

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process tracing; causality; causal mechanism; qualitative methodology

This paper addresses process tracing as a tool for studying causality in case studies. The method of process tracing, which is based on explicit specification of a causal mechanism and formalized treatment of empirical evidence, is intensively developed in political science. However, sociology and other social sciences seem to be turning a blind eye to the method. Therefore, the paper strives to familiarize the Czech and Slovak sociological community with this method and to outline the ongoing discussions about its application. The value of process tracing dwells not only in the elaborate frame for standardization of case studies, but also in the related debates reflecting upon a whole range of general methodological issues. This makes process tracing a valuable lesson in contemporary social science methodology and possibilities in non-experimental analysis of causality.

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 49, 2017, No. 1: 55-80.

 
  Evropská občanská iniciativa jako nástroj rozvoje občansko-politické participace pohledem konceptu struktury politických příležitostí
Lukáš Novotný, Pavel Maškarinec

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European Union; civic society; European Citizens’ Initiative; political participation; political opportunity structure

The European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI) is the institutional innovations that have sought to enhance the participatory nature of EU politics. This paper demonstrates that the current form of ECI is not a tool for active participation of citizens in shaping of the European politics. On the contrary, the practice of the ECI is totally at odds with the reasons why this tool was anchored in the Lisbon Treaty. Similarly, a high number of rejected registrations suggests, that the Commission itself sees that it is unable to solve the problem, or it is not willing to agree to enforce fundamental changes. Actually, there were registered only those initiatives that was focused on particulars. Thus, although the dynamic multilevel model of political opportunity structure might suggest that the ECI institutional settings is an example of an open international (European) political opportunity structure, our analysis showed, that, in practice, this is markedly closed political opportunity structure, mainly due to the influence of the Commission. Significant decrease of submitted ECI, after three years since the introduction of this institute, confirms that the initial euphoria of the involvement of citizens to the decision-making mechanisms of the EU does not take place, and instead of strengthening democratization and the creation of a common European political space, the ECI may act more in the direction of further deepening of the democratic deficit and alienating European citizens from the idea of a common Europe.

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 49, 2017, No. 1: 81-108.

 
  Modelová stratégia konštruovania sociologických teórií
Juraj Schenk

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theory construction, model-based strategy, analytical sociology, Matthew effect, agent-based model

In the article, three basic types of strategies for sociological theory construction as well as main features of model-based strategy are briefly introduced. The main attention is payed to the road passed by contemporary analyti¬cal sociology in the field of theory construction. Theoretical models (drawn from R. Boudon´s work) based upon social mechanism and providing explanation of social phenomena or processes, correspond to the first step on the road. In the next section, the transitional stage from theoretical models through classic formal models to agent-based models is mentioned. As a common example, the reproduction of social inequalities (Mat¬thew effect and cumula¬tive (dis)advantages) which constitutes the substantive background linking classic formal models to agent-based model was exploited. The final part is dealing with the construction of agent-based model of deference exchanges (Manzo & Baldassarri). Heuristic and methodological problems are emphasized.

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 49, 2017, No. 1: 109-138.