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Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review


Volume 44, 2012, No. 3

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  Bahna, Miloslav: Migrácia zo Slovenska po vstupe do Európskej únie
Vladimír Baláž

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Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 44, 2012, No. 3: 402-404.

 
 

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  Demographic Behaviour and the Modernization Process: A Cross-Sectional Study of Fertility Determinants in Slovakia 1930
Michal Roupa

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demographic transition; early 20th century; education; fertility; fertility determinants; illiteracy; interwar period; modernization; Slovakia; socioeconomic factors

Demographic Behaviour and the Modernization Process: A Cross-Sectional Study of Fertility Determinants in Slovakia 1930. In 1930, the population of Slovakia was in the middle of a demographic transition. Various models of fertility behaviour were common, and so were families with high and low numbers of children. This paper looks at the causes of differences in fertility by comparing the level of fertility with economic, social and cultural indicators in 81 districts of Slovakia. The results show that several social and economic factors had a strong relationship with fertility: illiteracy, infant mortality, the proportion of dependence on agriculture and other factors, most of which can be described as measures of the modernization of society. Ethnic and religious structures of the population were less important factors. Also the relationship of fertility with marriage age and the proportion of married was surprisingly weak. The paper discusses possible explanations for the relationship between fertility and indicators, i.e. mechanisms underlying these relations, but the available data do not allow sufficient verification. Instead of finding causal relations, it is possible to show the proxies of general modernization, which would be most effective in estimating the level of fertility. The level of education, which best reflects the change in economic conditions as well as change in values and attitudes of people – both necessary for fertility decline, proved to be such an indicator. Sociológia 2012, Vol. 44 (No. 3: 255-290)

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 44, 2012, No. 3: 255-290.

 
  Social Innovations in the Context of Modernization
Gabriela Lubelcová

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social innovation; modernization; social change; social problems; sustainable innovation, social economy

Social Innovations in the Context of Modernization. This paper deals with the subject of social innovations and their application in social practice. It attempts to conceptualize social innovations within theories on the modernization of the society. It is based on a sociological understanding of social innovation as a source of social change and modernization as an example of social change. The importance of social innovations rises with the high dynamism of changes in late modern society, and with the growth of its structural and cultural differentiation, which diversifies, differentiates, individualizes and dynamizes man's social world. Social context has influenced a modified understanding of innovation not only as a tool and source of economic productivity and competitiveness, but also as a potential tool for achieving social goals and social cohesion in society. The social dimension puts more significance on the positions and roles of social actors as vehicles of innovation. The solution to social problems and increasing the ability of social actors to participate in the solution process has become an important condition for sustainable economic growth. The author defines criteria of social innovation and conditions for their practical application. Sociológia 2012, Vol. 44 (No. 3: 291-313)

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 44, 2012, No. 3: 291-313.

 
  The Effects of Multinational Corporation (MNC) Penetration on the Global Political Economy. A Re-analysis of a Recurrent Sociological Proposition with Contemporary Data
Arno Tausch, Almas Heshmati

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International Relations and International Political Economy – General; Economic Development; Technological Change, and Growth – Economic Development – General; Economic Integration; Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection; Cross-Sectional Models;

The Effects of Multinational Corporation (MNC) Penetration on the Global Political Economy. A Re-analysis of a Recurrent Sociological Proposition with Contemporary Data. In this essay we reconsider the effects of direct foreign investments on the host countries around the globe. A number of sociological analyses (Bandelji 2009; Mahutga – Bandelji 2008), already applied such a question to Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Is the growing penetration of host countries of multinational investment heralding the promised gains of stable economic growth and social cohesion, or is social polarization around the corner instead? In our re-analysis with contemporary data of one of the most influential essays ever published in international sociology (Bornschier – Chase-Dunn – Rubinson 1978), which predicted that direct foreign investment would increase economic inequality and that it would have a short-term dynamic, but a long-term stagnation effect on the economic growth of the host countries (Bornschier – Chase-Dunn – Rubinson 1978: 651), we re-confirm the main thrust of the sceptical hypotheses on multinational corporation (MNC) penetration. We also show that on the global level and in the 183 countries analysed there is indeed a very strong connection between foreign capital penetration in the mid-1990s on the one hand and rising inequality, deficient life expectancy, rising unemployment, and a deficient under five mortality rate in the first decade of the new Millennium on the other. Economic growth in the contemporary period (2010) is also being determined negatively by the long-term effects of multinational corporation penetration in the mid-1990s, while in the period between 1990 and 2005 the effect was positive. We thus confirm that the approach, established by Bandelji 2009 and Mahutga and Bandelji 2008, is a valid one, and can be generalized on a global level. Sociológia 2012, Vol. 44 (No. 3: 314-347)

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 44, 2012, No. 3: 314-347.

 
  Young Multilingual Immigrants in Spain. The Role of Individual and Social Variables
Juan Carlos Checa Olmos, Ángeles Arjona Garrido, David Checa Gómez

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Immigrants; second generation; multilingualism; segmented assimilation

Young Multilingual Immigrants in Spain: The Role of Individual and Social Variables. Immigration in recent decades has configured a more multilingual space than there has ever been before in Spain. The double purpose of this study was to discover self-reported use of language by foreigners and their linguistic competence in both formal and informal Spanish environments. An Index of Linguistic Competence in Spanish (ILCS) based on oral, phonetic, written and comprehension capabilities was designed for this. Data were from a survey given to the foreign population aged 14 to 18 residing in the Province of Almería (Spain). The results show that the level they have acquired is lower than native students. Furthermore, there are considerable differences among the foreigners themselves by age, years of residence in Spain, years in school, and origin. Sociológia 2012, Vol. 44 (No. 3: 348-366)

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 44, 2012, No. 3: 348-366.

 
  Quality of Governance in “Old” and “New” EU Member States in a Comparative Perspective
Matevž Tomšič, Urban Vehovar

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governance; democracy; development; European Union

Quality of Governance in “Old” and “New” EU Member States in a Comparative Perspective. A question arises whether the quality of governance of the “old” EU member states is greater than that of the “new” ones. Intuitively speaking, “old” member states should fare much better. In the article, a measure of the quality of governance is presented, based on the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) for 1996, 2003 and 2010. According to the authors, the quality of governance consists of three components: system persistence, inclusiveness and effectiveness. Findings indicate that most of the “old” EU member states perform much better with respect to the quality of governance compared to their “new” counterparts. Further, the relationship between the quality of governance and some aspects of socio-economic development is examined. In this regard, a strong correlation between most of the elements under consideration is detected. In conclusion, the authors assume that if the EU chooses not to elicit a higher quality of governance of its member states, it is destined to become a melee of states characterised by enormously different levels of democratic potential. As a consequence, inevitably, a question will arise as to the sustainability and sense of purpose of its very existence. Sociológia 2012, Vol. 44 (No. 3: 367-384)

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 44, 2012, No. 3: 367-384.

 
  The Discussion of Subjective Quality of Working Life Indicators
Jiří Vinopal

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Job Satisfaction, Quality of Working Life, Work Satisfaction, SQWL Index

The Discussion of Subjective Quality of Working Life Indicators. This article discusses the main types of methodological approaches to the examination of subjective working life quality. In particular, it points out their common traits and differences and therefore shows their potentials as well as weaknesses in different survey purposes. Analysis of Czech worker survey data is based on the dual concept of the quality of working life, which is addressed in the first parts of the study. Two basic dimensions of the concept are described as a problem of a combination of objective characteristics and their subjective perception by workers. A system of three main levels which can produce relevant information for working life quality analysis (micro-, meso- and macro-) is introduced. Special attention is paid to a discussion of various types of survey questions (simple question, one-dimensional set of items, multi-dimensional set of items). The paper shows which kind of information they can deliver and how they work in different survey data analyses. At the same time, their different potentials in the case of meritory analysis are discussed. In connection with two fundamental objectives that may be pursued in the study of working life quality, i.e., the construction of an aggregate indicator and comprehensive analysis, the options and pitfalls involved in the merging of these different areas are commented on. Sociológia 2012, Vol. 44 (No. 3: 385-401)

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 44, 2012, No. 3: 385-401.