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Geografický časopis

Volume 61, 2009, No. 4


  Diachronic analysis of floodplain lakes of the Sacramento River
Monika Michalková 1)

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1)Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Physical Geography and Geoecology, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

floodplain lake, diachronic and synchronic analysis, aerial photographs, GIS, Sacramento River

This study is based on temporal (diachronic) analysis of floodplain lakes using aerial photographs (1942, 1962, 1985 and 1999). The synchronic analysis researches into the internal linkages of a system at a given point in time. A diachronic analysis regards the phenomenon in terms of developments through time. We analysed the planimetric changes in order to highlight the spatial structures and their stability over time. Aerial photography is used for diverse diachronic analyses of channel change on the Sacramento River, California. Georeferenced and rectified aerial photos and maps are most desirable for use in the analysis of meander migration and floodplain lakes. All data were integrated into a GIS database (ArcGIS 9.3). Three main types of floodplain lakes were observed according to their spatial geometry, plug length and connection to the main channel: the oxbow lakes, the straight backwaters and the straight secondary channels.

Geografický časopis. Volume 61, 2009, No. 4: 257-268.

  Percepcia riečnej krajiny (príklad vodného toku Smrečianka)
Ivana Tomčíková 1), Milan Lehotský 2)

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1)Katolícka univerzita v Ružomberku, Pedagogická fakulta, Katedra geografie, Námestie A. Hlinku 56/1,.
2)Geografický ústav SAV, Štefánikova 49, 814 73 Bratislava.

perception, river landscape, inhabitants, students, tourists

The paper contributes to research on riverine landscapes and its aim is to assess their perception by local population, tourists, students of natural sciences (geography and biology) and humanities. It rests on formulation of hypotheses associated with the perception, their confirmation or denial applying subjective (experimental and experience-dependent) approach through questionnaires and assessment of photos. The riverine landscape along the Smrečianka stream in the Liptovská Basin in the Západné Tatry Mts. represented the research area. Data collection from three sets of respondents was carried out: 80 randomly selected locals, 60 randomly selected tourists and 60 students (30 students of pre-school and elementary education and 30 students of geography and biology). Apart from the main hypothesis (H0) “Persons at different ages and pertaining to different socio-economic groups perceive the riverine landscape in a different way”, six partial hypotheses (H1 – H6) were formulated. The main H0 hypothesis was not altogether confirmed. It was found out that education of inhabitants was the decisive factor in relation to the landscape. While age was decisive in the case of tourists, differences in perception between students of natural sciences and those of humanities were not confirmed; both prefer the natural intact riverine landscape, they feel better there and they identify more with it.

Geografický časopis. Volume 61, 2009, No. 4: 269-289.

  Umbrizem - nový pôdny typ na Slovensku
Zoltán Bedrna 1), Pavel Dlapa 2), Michal Ďuriš 3), Jana Bútorová 4)

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1)Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Prírodovedecká fakulta, Katedra fyzickej geografie a geoekológie, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava.
2)Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Prírodovedecká fakulta, Katedra pedológie, Mlynská dolina,842 15 Bratislava.
3)Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Prírodovedecká fakulta, Katedra pedológie, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava.
4)Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Prírodovedecká fakulta, Katedra pedológie, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava.

Umbrisol, umbrizem, soil type, soil subtype

The Umbric horizon is quoted in classifications of soils in Slovakia and the soil unit compared with the WRB taxonomy, the Dystric Cambisol is mentioned as Cambic and Haplic Umbrisol. Whereas Umbrisols are mentioned on the Soil Map of Europe, this soil type does not occur in the territory of Slovakia. The principal aim set for the grant task of geographic nature was to identify frequency of soils with Umbric horizon or even Umbrisol (national name Umbrizem) in Slovakia. A special soil survey in the alpine landscape of the Západné and Nízke Tatry Mountains ranges as well as in the Borska nížina Lowland identified such soils. The find is documented by descriptions and results of morphological, physical and chemical properties of these soils. Simultaneously, it is proposed to include the umbrizem type with the following subtypes: modal, anthropic, and gleyic as well as soil subtype umbrizemic to soil types Gleysol, Leptosol, Cambisol, Rendzic Leptosol and Calcaric Cambisol into the classification system of soils of Slovakia

Geografický časopis. Volume 61, 2009, No. 4: 291-300.

  Antropogénny vplyv na pôdy mestskej časti Bratislava-Rača
Zuzana Tatarková 1)

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1)Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Prírodovedecká fakulta, Katedra pedológie, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava.

Bratislava-Rača, soil anthropization, soil types

Anthropization of soil is the process of human activity affecting soil characteristics. Changes in soil characteristics are observable only in the upper parts of soil profiles. They are classified by means of their positive or negative effects upon the soil biota. The aim of the paper was to investigate the rate of soil anthropization in the area of Bratislava – Rača. Investigating the soil anthropization rate was a complex process consisting of several steps. Firstly, sources on the anthropization of soil and the history of Rača were studied. Secondly, based on a proper field research, representative soil profiles were chosen. Thirdly, soil samples were taken and analysed, maps were processed and finally, the results were evaluated. The basic assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of soil was accomplished with use of standard analytical methods. The weighting analysis was applied to the calculation of the soil anthropization rate and size determination of the respective areas. The corresponding maps were compiled using the AutoCAD. This research revealed that in the area of Bratislava-Rača, there are mostly areas with no or only faint anthropization (38.04%). Then there are highly anthropized areas (19.15%), followed by the sealed areas and water bodies (15.45%), and moderately anthropized areas; these represent 14.70% of the total area of Bratislava-Rača. The smallest area is that faintly anthropized (12.66%). The soil most affected by anthropization is in the built-up areas, followed by Technosols and the soil of vineyards or Anthrosols. Among the moderately affected soils is the agricultural soil and Molic Fluvisols, while its effect upon forest soil or Cambisols is faint.

Geografický časopis. Volume 61, 2009, No. 4: 301-314.

  Vplyv vybraných socio-ekonomických faktorov na mieru nezamestnanosti na úrovni malých území
Martin Rosič 1), Ján Kaňuk 2)

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1)Katedra geografie a regionálneho rozvoja, Fakulta Humanitných a prírodných vied Prešovskej univerzity v Prešove, ul. 17 novembra 1, 080 01 Prešov. rosmat@post.ak
2)Univerzita Pavla Jozefa Šafárika, Prírodovedecká fakulta, Ústav geografie, Jesenná 5, 040 01 Košice.

unemployment, socio-economic indicators, unemployment rate, correlation and regression analyses

The problem of unemployment in the Slovak Republic emerged in 1989 when the entire society entered the transition. It is therefore, a relatively new feature. Regional differences in the unemployment rate may reflect deep socio-economic differences between regions. The present study examines the contribution of the unemployment structure, that of the economically active population, education and age of the population to the regional differences in unemployment rate in selected districts of north-eastern Slovakia. Correlation and linear regression were used to analyse the relationship between the selected socio-economic indicators and the district unemployment rate. Analyses indicated a significant association between the selected socio-economic indicators and the regional unemployment rate. The explained variance of the model was 53.8%; evidently, the strongest contribution is attributable to the proportion of population moving out of the district in search for jobs, the proportion of long-term unemployed (more than 12 months), the proportion of economically active inhabitants and the age structure of the population. The results of the study identified the risk groups within the population of districts with high unemployment rates and some selected socio-economic factors as important contributors to the district unemployment rate.

Geografický časopis. Volume 61, 2009, No. 4: 315-335.