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Institute: Earth Science Institute of the SAS

A 250 year history of human impacts on a landscape of the Banská Štiavnica mining territory: palaeolimnological reconstruction using biotic and abiotic indicators from lake sediments
Antropické zmeny prostredia v banskoštiavnickej banskej oblasti počas posledných 250 rokov: paleolimnologická rekonštrukcia s využitím biologických a abiotických indikátorov zo sedimentov vodných nádrží.
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Dr. Kyška-Pipík Radovan PhD.
Annotation:The Banská Štiavnica region belonged to the most important mining regions in Europe since the Middle Ages. Due to mining, the economic development of this area has increased, on the other hand, mining has left a legacy of residues and waste from ore processing. Many of these structures, e.g. reservoirs, have become a part of the landscape and, interestingly, made it even more attractive. That is likely the reason why impact of the mining activities has yet been evaluated as a geomorphological factor rather than an environmental issue. In contrast to previous studies focusing on the current landscape and ecosystems, the proposed project will study the extent and intensity of human impacts for the last ~250 years using multi-proxy approach. Except for evaluating environmental contamination by mining waste and its potential risk to organisms and humans, the project represents a unique opportunity to observe the dynamics and timing of processes leading to the current status of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

Atmospheric processes and tropospheric ozone in the mountain environment
Atmosférické procesy a troposférický ozón v horskom prostredí
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Bičárová Svetlana PhD.
Annotation:Complex terrain of the High Tatra Mts is characterised by variable meteorological and climatic conditions. Driving forces of atmospheric processes in system atmosphere-soil-vegetation are solar radiation and energy balance of earth surface. Serious problem of mountainous regions is long-range transport of secondary air pollution, especially dry deposition of ground-level ozone (O3) and wet depositon of acidifying components (S, N, H+). Recent research of O3 impact on forests requires detailed information about the physical and chemical processes associated with O3 formation (photochemical potential of UV radiation) and transport of O3 from the atmosphere to the earth surface (dry deposition). The aim of this project is to study the variability of solar and UV photochemically active radiation; to evaluate the extent of acidification or eutrophication of forest soils and to estimate the phytotoxic O3 potential for typical forest species in the High Tatras region.
Duration: 1.1.2014 - 31.12.2017

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Biosttratigrafický a paleoekologický výskum jurských a kriedových fácií typu „fleckenmergel“ v Západných Karpatoch
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Ozdínová Silvia PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2019

Deglaciation and postglacial climatic evolution recorded in the lake deposits of the High Tatra Mountains
Deglaciácia a postglaciálny klimatický vývoj Vysokých Tatier zaznamenaný v jazerných sedimentoch
Program: SRDA
Project leader: Dr. Kyška-Pipík Radovan PhD.
Annotation:The historical and meteorological climate records are too short to appreciate a global average temperature increase since 1990. Therefore it is necessary to search information about environmental changes in the past for reflections on future climate and environmental change and the mechanisms of natural climate variability. One of the most intensively studied geological period in palaeoclimatology is the transition between the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Holocene when the average annual temperature of the atmosphere increased by 5°C and greatly affected the Earth's ecosystems. LGM resulted in the formation of mountain glacier in the High Tatras, which after its maximum extension at around 23 ka retreated and disappeared 8330 BP. Knowledge about the timing of the deglaciation and the subsequent ecological changes remain limited despite 150 years of glaciological research in the High Tatras. The main project aim is study of deglaciation in alpine zone after LGM with respect to topography, altitude and orientation to north-south gradient. It will study a transition from glacial to post-glacial sedimentation and environmental changes in limnic sediments after the glacier retreat. To achieve the research objectives, the selected lakes cover a whole territory of the Slovak part of the High Tatras which has not yet been studied on the proposed scale. Sedimentary infill will be studied by analytical methods that have not yet been used in postglacial research in the Western Carpathians. A unique database of the High Tatras lakes infill will be built.
Duration: 1.7.2016 - 30.6.2020

Flow deposition of acidifying components and ozone in the selected submontain and mountain areas of Slovakia
Depozičné toky acidifikačných zložiek lesných pôd a ozónu vo vybraných podhorských a horských oblastiach Slovenska
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Bičárová Svetlana PhD.
Annotation:Research will be focused on temporal and spatial trends of the main components of acidification in forest soils. The response of herbal synusia to changed eco-edaphic conditions will be investigated in selected forest sites in the central Slovakia (Kremnické vrchy Mts. and Štiavnické vrchy Mts.). Furthermore, monitoring of ground-level ozone and model estimation of O3 deposition flows will be done in the High Tatra Mts.
Duration: 1.1.2014 - 31.12.2017

Origin of the Evate phosphate deposit, Mozambique
Genéza fosfátového ložiska Evale v Mozambiku
Program: VEGA
Project leader: doc. RNDr. Hurai Vratislav DrSc.
Annotation:The project is aimed to provide mineralogical, geochemical and genetic characteristics of the Evate deposit in Mozambique, which is one of the largest phosphate deposits of Africa, with estimated reserves of 155 millions of metric tons of ore with 9.3 % of P2O5 calculated to the depth of 100 m from the recent surface. The deposit is intended to supply with apatite the fertilizer complex to be built in the nearby coastal district of Nacala-a-Velha. In spite of the prepared exploitation, the mineralogy of the deposit is poorly elucidated and its origin remains controversial. Recent models include metamorphogenic or magmatogenic origins linked with Precambrian alkalic intrusions. Magmatic deposits of similar types (e.g. Kovdor, Kola), however, serve primarily as a source of rare earth elements and rare metals bound in apatite and specific minerals. Detailed mineralogy as well as genetic information have a profound importance for the exploitation, beneficiation strategy and economic assessment of the deposit.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

Geophysical multi.parametric modelling of the Earth´s crust and upper mantle in Slovakia
Geofyzikálne multiparametrické modelovanie štruktúry zemskej kôry a vrchného plášťa Slovenska
Program: SRDA
Project leader: RNDr. Vozár Ján PhD.
Duration: 1.7.2017 - 30.6.2021

Geophysical model of the lithosphere of the Western Carpathians
Geofyzikálny model litosféry Západných Karpát
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Vajda Peter PhD.
Annotation:Geophysical model of the lithosphere of the Western Carpathians will be based on the results obtained by 2D and 3D interpretation of gravity and thermal field of the Earth. In the frame of interpretation the modern, world-wide accepted, gravimetric and geothermic methods will be applied. These methods will also use the newest results of the other geophysical fields (mainly seismic), geology and geodesy. The resultant 2D and 3D lithospheric models will represent the utilization of all knowledge on the deep-seated structure of the Western Carpathian lithosphere on the basis of own interpretation of gravity and thermal field. Based on these models a new geophysical model of the lithosphere of the Western Carpathians will be constructed, which will extend our present knowledge on the recent structure, composition and tectonics of the lithosphere in the Western Carpathians. The model will be also a basis for tectonic reconstruction of the space distribution of the tectonic elements of the Western Carpathians.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Geochemistry and geochronology of the dyke rocks from the Western Carpathians
Geochémia a geochronológia magmatických žilných hornín v Západných Karpatoch
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Siman Pavol PhD.
Annotation:Project is focused at geochemistry and age relations of the Pre-Alpine dike igneous rocks in the Western Carpathians. Origin, time and spatial relations of the dike igneous rocks are going to be solved, based on the geochemical characteristics. Studied rock types will be felsic granitic porphyries, intermediate to basic rocks (kersantitesand spessartites). The main goal of study of these rocks is their age and genetic relations to host rock(crystalline complexes – granites mainly). The last studied rock types are alkaline lamprophyres. Again, their age and genetic relations to their host rock will be defined in the different tectonic units. The modern laboratory methods will be used for interpretations (Rb, Sr, Sm, Nd isotopes) and Ar/Ar to U/Th/Pb dating of apatite, monazite. These data will be obtained by cooperation with foreign institutions (Polish Academy of Science, Krakow, Trinity College Dublin, Kyoto University, Okayama University of Science, University Lund).
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Geomagnetic field in Slovakia round the 2018.5 epoch
Geomagnetické pole na Slovensku v okolí epochy 2018,5
Program: SRDA
Project leader: Mgr. Valach Fridrich PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2019

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Geomagnetické pole na Slovensku v okolí epochy 2018.5
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Valach Fridrich PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2019

Correlation of Permian S-type granites from Gemeric unit of the Western Carpathians with the Permian granites in the southern Europe and Anatolia
Charakteristika permských granitov S-typu z Gemerickej jednotky Západných Karpát a ich porovnanie s permskými granitmi JV Európy a Anatólie
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Broska Igor DrSc.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2019

Identification and characterization of a potencial of site effects using robust numerical modelling of equarthquake ground motion
Identifikácia a charakterizácia potenciálu lokálnych efektov pomocou robustného numerického modelovania seizmického pohybu
Program: SRDA
Project leader: Mgr. Kristeková Miriam PhD.
Annotation:The last two decades tragically and dramatically demonstrated capability of even relatively weak earthquakes to cause human losses and damage. The key reasons for this are buildings which are not designed/reinforced to withstand earthquake ground motion (EGM), increasing vulnerability due to technological complexity of densely populated areas, and anomalous earthquake ground motion due to local surface geological conditions. Seismic wave interference and resonant phenomena in sediment-filled basins and valleys can produce anomalously large EGM and cause the so called “site effects”. Site effects pose a potential threat also for important nuclear and industrial facilities. It is therefore important to identify and characterize a potential of site effects at sites of interest. In the absence of sufficient earthquake recordings one possible approach is to numerically simulate EGM. We assume that a verified and validated computationally efficient numerical method makes it possible to obtain synthetic “data” that could approximately substitute missing measured data for which we would have to wait for a too long time. A systematic investigation of EGM characteristics in a significant/representative set of realistic models of local conditions can lead to identification of key EGM characteristics and key structural parameters responsible for site effects, and consequently to identification and characterization of a potential of site effects in the set of considered local surface conditions.
Duration: 1.7.2016 - 30.6.2020

Implementation of recent innovations in potential fields interpretation methodology
Implementácia inovácií v potenciálových interpretačných metódach
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Vajda Peter PhD.
Annotation:Implementation of the recent innovations from the theoretical and numerical developments in the potential fields inversion methodology for investigating the structure and properties of the earth lithosphere and asthenosphere, as well as for societal benefits. The application of innovated interpretational procedures based on software packages CAGES, LitMod3D and Inversion3D. The utilization of inversion methodology based on a combination of several optional interpretational steps: removal of model regional trend, stripping, depth-wise separation of signal of sources by means of a triple harmonic continuation of the observed surface data, identification of multiple sources with the help of nonlinear optimization by line segments, determination of positions and geometry of multiple sources given as star-convex homogenous bodies and/or 3D contrast contact/interface surfaces by means of nonlinear inversion based on the so called local corrections. The application of innovations of geothermal modelling.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Integrated sedimentological study of the Paleogene formations of the Central Western Carpathians: a reconstruction of the depositional paleoenvironments in relation to tectogenetic processes, subsidence history of the basin and changing climate regimes
Integrovaný sedimentologický výskumu paleogénnych súvrství Centrálnych Západných Karpát: rekonštrukcia depozičných paleoprostredí vo vzťahu k tektogenetickým procesom, subsidenčnej histórii panvy a meniacim sa klimatickým režimom.
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Starek Dušan PhD.
Annotation:The goal of proposed project is the implementation of integrated sedimentological research of the Paleogene Fm. of the Central Western Carpathians. Sedimentary formations of the Subtatric Group originated in different depositional palaeoenvironments evolving during sequence-stratigraphic evolution of the basin and their nature was in direct relation to the changing climate, tectogene processes and subsidence history of the basin. Implementation of detailed facies analysis inclusive sedimentology, petrography and palaeontology research allow to define main depositional palaeoenvironments, their lateral and vertical development as well as their genetic relations. The results will contribute to the interpretation of the basin fill architecture and its palaeoenviromental developments in relation to changing system tract during sequence - stratigraphic evolution of the basin. The acquired knowledge will have a wider use in the reconstruction of paleogeography and tectogenesis of the Carpathian Paleogene basins.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

Complex model of base and precious metal mineralisation at the Rozália mine in Hodruša - Hámre
Komplexný model polymetalicko-drahokamovej mineralizácie na Rozálii bani v Hodruši - Hámroch
Program: SRDA
Project leader: RNDr. Lexa Jaroslav CSc.
Annotation:The project deals with the only ore deposit actively mined in Slovakia that is exceptional by richness of ore and its structural position on subhorizontal veins in center of the Štiavnica stratovolcano caldera. Epithermal Pb-Zn- Au-Ag vein deposit at Rozália mine was studied in detail just in its western part, while for its eastern part which is being intensively mined already since 2008, there are missing basic data about structural position, mineralogy and alteration. Genesis of the deposit is neither sufficiently solved. The absence of this information causes problems in exploration for further occurrences of this type of mineralisation in the district and in processing of ore. The creation of a complex model of mineralisation, including 3D modelling of mining works, geology and distribution of useful metals at the deposit in GIS, will significantly contribute to formulation of genetic model and resource assessment and it will result in more effective exploration and mining activities at the deposit. Genetic model of this exceptional deposit will contribute to general understanding of genesis of epithermal systems.
Duration: 1.7.2016 - 31.12.2020

Convective dynamics of phase transition in the Earth's core
Konvektívna dynamika fázovej premeny v jadre Zeme
Program: VEGA
Project leader: doc. Mgr. Guba Peter PhD.
Annotation:The project is focused on the theoretical study of convective dynamics of phase transition of multicomponent mixtures with application to the phase boundary between the inner and outer core of the Earth. A problem of nonlinear convective dynamics of a ternary dendritic zone, incorporating the interaction between the fluid flow and structure of the solid phase and the dynamic effects of material diffusion, will be analyzed. Theoretical predictions of the model will be compared and contrasted with the observed existence of chemically distinct layers within the Earth's inner core with discontinuities at radii 870 km and 1050 km.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

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Korelačné eventy globálnej stratigrafie a paleoprostredia v kriedových a paleogénnych súvrstviach Západných Karpát: biotické, sedimentárne a geochemické indikátory.
Program: VEGA
Project leader: doc. RNDr. Soták Ján DrSc.
Annotation:The project is focused on two dissimilar gological periods, in which the fundamental changes of Earth?s global systems took place. These changes disturbed the conditions of thermal stability of the Cretaceous period and culminated by the biotic crisis on K/T boundary (65.5 Ma), which was folloved by perturbations with enormous uprise of temperature (55 Ma), climatic optimum (40 Ma) a finally with the Late Eocene climatic cooling (33.5 Ma). Therefore, the project goals are intended in identification and stratigraphic dating of these global events in sedimentary formations of the Western Carpathians. Their records will be analysed in term of bioproductivity, paleotemperatures and nutrients, oxygen concentration, stress indicators, stable isotopes, volcanic and meteoric products. Such data allow to interpret the events of extinction and phylogenesis of new taxa, climatic conditions, anoxic events, indices of eutrophization, eustatic changes, sedimentary environments, syngenetic volcanisms and impact events.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2019

Crustal tectonic structures in Eastern Slovakia – interepretation based on magnetotelluric and others geophysical data
Kôrové tektonické štruktúry vo východnej čast Slovenska – interpretácia na základe magnetotelurických a ďalších geofyzikálnych dát
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Bezák Vladimír CSc.
Annotation:Interpretation of the crustal structure of the Western Carpathians in Eastern Slovakia using the combined modeling of geophysical and tectonic data. The project is continuation of crustal structure interpretation in the western part of Slovakia in previous stage of investigation. New modeling of magnetotelluric (MT) data measured in several profiles in the eastern part of Slovakia. Use of gravimetric, magnetic and seismic data for integrated geophysical modeling. Interpretation of deep structure based on the General geological map of the Slovak Republic, scale 1: 200 000. Identification of major tectonic fault zones and areas with anomalous manifestations of the geophysical field. Geological interpretation of the geophysical anomalies.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

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Magnetická anizotropia, sedimentológia a proveniencia klastických súvrství Západných Karpát
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Madzin Jozef PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Mesozoic changes of climate, sedimentation, palaeooceanologic proxies, environments and communities of marine organisms
Mezozoické zmeny podnebia, sedimentácie, paleooceánologických faktorov, prostredí a spoločnstiev morských organizmov.
Program: VEGA
Project leader: doc. RNDr. Michalík Jozef DrSc.
Annotation:The project deals with the interpretation of complex geological record of significant changes in the Mesozoic evolution of the Western Carpathians in terms of paleoclimate, paleooceanology, paleogeography and palaeoecology aspects. Detailed sedimentary research includes cyclostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, microfacies, geochemistry and magnetostratigraphical analysis and study of communities of marine organisms. Attention is paid mainly on quantitative and qualitative analysis of planktonic microfossils in particular communities and on residual organic matter. The object of the study will be applied on coherent profiles through sections with prominent lithological breaks indicating periods of turnovers between different environmental regimes in sedimentary basins. To determine the age and spatial dependence of marker horizons, biostratigraphical analysis and astrochronological correlation of sedimentary cycles will be also used.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

Mineralogy and genesis of economically important types of gold mineralization in the Central Slovakia Volcanic Field
Mineralógia a genéza ekonomicky významných typov mineralizácií zlata v stredoslovenských neovulkanitoch
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Lexa Jaroslav CSc.
Annotation:This project deals with characterisation of two most important types of precious metal mineralisation in Slovakia that have a real economic importance. Completion of their current level of knowledge in terms of mineralogy and genesis can significantly help in exploration and mining of these ores. Epithermal vein Au-Ag deposit Rozália mine was studied in detail in its western part, while for its eastern part that is intensively mined since 2008, mineralogical data are missing and its genesis is not satisfactorily clear. The absence of this information causes problems with processing of ores and prospecting for this type of ore in this district. Porphyry gold mineralisation is a new type of Au ore in Western Carpathians that proved to be a very specific type of deposit even in world comparison. The study of this mineralisation has a potential to significantly improve the knowledge of these rare magmatic-hydrothermal systems, which can help to make their exploration more effective also elsewhere in the world.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Interaction models of crustal and mantle rocks with fluids in accretionary wedges of the Western Carpathians, eastern Alps and northern Turkey; correlation of P-T-X-t parameters
Modely interkcie kôrových a plášťových hornín s fluidami v akrečných prizmách Západných Karpát, váchodných Álp a severného Turecka; korelácia P-T-X-t parametrov
Program: SRDA
Project leader: RNDr. Siman Pavol PhD.
Annotation: Project deals with fluid-alteration processes in crust-mantle prism rocks exposed in alpidic orogene of the Western Carpathians, eastern Alps and northern Turkey. These processes are related to important magmatic and metamorphic events which we studied in previous projects. Now we are focussing on fluid-rock interaction zones, the genesis of which has not yet been investigated: i) in subduction-accretionary wedges blueschists, eclogites and metaultramafics, ii) in lower crust orthogneisses, granites, metabasites and metaultramafics, iii) in skarns and iv) in lamprophyres and mantle xenoliths. These processes represent a fluid-rock interaction at the different lithosphere levels. The emphasis will be given to the newly-found mineral parageneses and individual phases, which can be basis for an updated petrologic model of crust-mantle interaction. Detailed mineralogical-petrological investigation will be performed on the altered rocks mineral associations, which are the main indicators of the lithosphere fluid regime. Modern microscopic, electron-optic, rtg diffraction and spectroscopic methods will be used for determination of the alteration zones mineral and rock chemical compositions. Thermodynamic modelling and geothermobarometry will be applied for estimation alteration reactions P-T-X conditions. Chosen radiogenic and stable isotopes, and isotopic ages of alteration products will be determined. Potential sources of fluids will be defined accordingly. The lower-temperature alterations will be simulated in an autoclave; for verifying the higher-temperature and higher-pressure alteration conditions an access to special experimental laboratories abroad is required in framework of international co-operation. Model schemes of hydration-alteration processes will be proposed in microscale, with the aim to use them for geodynamic interpretation of an orogene accretionary wedge fluid regime.
Duration: 1.7.2016 - 31.12.2019

Multi-dimensional integrated geophysical-petrological modelling of the crust, and uppermost mantle for central Europe region by structural joint inversion
Multi-dimenzionálne integrované geofyzikálno-petrologické modelovanie kôry a vrchného plášťa v regióne strednej Európy pomocou štrukturálnej joint inverzie - CRITHON3D
Program: SASPRO
Project leader: RNDr. Vozár Ján PhD.
Annotation:Geophysical research, particularly using geoelectrical methods, significantly contributes to understanding and exploring processes related to strategic energy and mineral resources. The combination of different geophysical methods in a single inversion scheme reduces the non-uniqueness of inversion problems and the resulting models. Integrated geophysical and petrological modelling, together with inverse problems, represents some of the most interesting research topics for geophysical studies. In this project a petrologically driven approach with LitMod3D package, which models geophysical observables, constrained by topographic height and heat flow, will be extended by structurally coupled crustal model created by 3D joint inversion framework code for gravity, seismic and magnetotelluric data with the new name LitMod3Dic. The original LitMod package derives realistic temperature and pressure distributions within the upper mantle and characterizes mineral assemblages of given bulk chemical compositions as well as water content, which will allow us to define a bulk geophysical model of the upper mantle to derive corresponding predicted geophysical observables. The implementation of crustal inversion scheme will be done in two steps: a) the MT inversion code with geoelectrical crustal model will be included, because the MT 3D inversion code is most time consuming for numerical calculation and the necessary modifications of the MT inversion code will be essential; b) the 3D joint inversion framework approach will be included to add coupled crustal density and seismic velocities models. The final modified code LitMod3Dic will be used to undertake a multi-dimensional, petrologically-driven approach of combining MT, gravity and seismic data in inversion modelling of the upper-most mantle in the Carpatho-Pannonian region, followed by studies which will focus on the mapping of Neo-vulcanites and sub-basaltic crustal structures and thermal parameters in eastern and central Slovakia.
Duration: 1.3.2016 - 31.12.2018

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Multidisciplinárny výskum geofyzikálno-štruktúrnych parametrov a environmentálneho vplyvu zlomov Západných Karpát
Program: SRDA
Project leader: RNDr. Madarás Ján PhD.
Duration: 1.7.2017 - 30.6.2021

Multiproxy analysis of limnic profundal deposits: cyclicity and variability of the environment in Late Miocene of the Central Paratethys
Multiproxy analýza limnických profundálnych sedimentov: cyklicita a variabilita prostredia vo vrchnom miocéne Centrálnej Paratetýdy
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Dr. Kyška-Pipík Radovan PhD.
Annotation:The Miocene subtropical climate in the Central Paratethys culminated in the Middle Miocene climatic optimum (MMCO), followed by periods of warming and cooling (from MMCO to 8.5 Ma.) showing a gradual cooling trend. Factors of climate change could be the paleogeographic changes as well cyclicity of solar activity. Freshwater, profundal limnic sediments of the Turiec Basin with rich fossil microflora and microfauna deposited in the period from 8.0 to 6.0 Ma are an opportunity to obtain data on cyclicity and variability of the environment in that period. To achieve the objectives, a multi-proxy approach will be applied on profundal deposits. Heavy metal concentrations, natural gamma-radiation of the deposits, paleobiological and geochemical analyzes will be used as proxy data. The magnetostratigraphic data will permit a correlation with international stratigraphic scale and they allow calculating a model on a sedimentation rate, analysis of time series and detection of changes in variability and cyclicity.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

Numerical solution of the kinematic problem for geomagnetic secular variations
Numerické riešenie kinematickej úlohy pre sekulárne variácie geomagnetického poľa
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Marsenić Alexandra PhD.
Annotation:Hydromagnetic processes taking place in Earth's liquid core act as a source of geomagnetic secular variations. The key region, where the field is advected by large-scale flows and modified otherwise is the one beneath the surface of the core. Core dynamics is manifested by changes of intensity and position of the magnetic field's characteristics measured on the Earth's surface. One of its signs is westward drift of the non-dipole part of the geomagnetic field which directly shows advection of the field by flows in the core. Reversed flux patches identified at the core-mantle boundary are part of it. On the Earth's surface they appear as anomalous regions of low intensity. Analytic kinematic study of verical geomagnetic variation [10] explains them as a consequence of cooperation of 3-dimensional convection in the diffusionless main volume and resistive effects in the hydromagnetic boundary layer at the mantle. Numerical solution of the problem may help to better understand the complex dynamics of the core. [10] Marsenić, A., A kinematic model of vertical geomagnetic field variation resulting from a steady convective flow. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dynamics, DOI: 10.1080/03091929.2013.840723.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

Regional stratotypes for genetic, earthtime and paleoenvironmental properties of the Western Carpathian sedimentary basins
Oblastné stratotypy pre genetické, vekové a paleoenvironmentálne charakteristiky sedimentárnych paniev Západných Karpát
Program: SRDA
Project leader: doc. RNDr. Soták Ján DrSc.
Annotation:The project is focused to the study of stratotype sections, which provide a high-qaulity geological record for calibration of geological time scale and sedimentary archives of paleoenvironmental changes. The basic research will include the codification of the informal stratigraphic units, redefinition of historical stratotypes, classification of litho-, bio- and geochronological units, regional and interregional correlation of the units, etc. The stratotype study will be followed by multidisciplinary approach and application of the high-resolution methods, which provides the best-class data for time table calibration and identification of paleoenvironmental changes. Selection of stratotype profiles will be oriented to boundary strata, in which is possible to determine the extinction events and morphogenetic changes of the organisms, climatic and ecologic changes of paleoenvironments, sedimentary and hydrographical regimes of the basins, orbital and eustatic changes, depositional changes, paleomagnetic changes, records of impact events and syngenetic volcanisms, etc. This research provides a new informations for international decision of the Slovakian stratotypes and new potential statotypes for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic formations of the Western Carpathians. The project resulted to monographic publication of the Slovakian stratotypes, representing the standarts of time scale and records of paleoenvironmental changes.
Duration: 1.7.2015 - 30.6.2019

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Oxidácia rezistentných minerálov volfrámu v špecifických podmienkach ložiska Ochtiná
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Mikuš Tomáš PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2019

Comparison of country remediation possibilities in surrounding of selected European Cu-deposits
Porovnanie možnosti remediácie krajiny v oblasti vybraných opustených Cu-ložísk Európy
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Luptáková Jarmila PhD.
Annotation:Previous results of the mineralogical, pedological, hydrological, hydrogeological and geochemical investigation enabled objective imagine about the spatial distribution of heavy metals, about the kinetics and direction of their migration shown also by GIS instruments. The optimal solutions of balanced remediation of investigated mining territory, mainly of water (installation of new geochemical barriers at Špania Dolina and testing of already existing geochemical barriers at Ľubietová) and selection of plants suitable for fytoremediation of contaminated country will be presented as a result of the interdisciplinary reseach. The recommended remediation will be realised with respect to the features of mining territory in such a way to consider the environmental, mining-historical and economic aspects. For a consideration of the results will be compared the situation at Ľubietová and Špania Dolina deposits with Cu-deposits from Italy and Portugal. 1 – 2 PhD-students will be affiliated to the research-team.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

Solution of actual problems in geophysical and geodetic detection of underground cavities in environmental and archaeological applications
Riešenie aktuálnych problémov geofyzikálnej a geodetickej detekcie podpovrchových dutin v environmentálnych a archeologických aplikáciách
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Zahorec Pavol PhD.
Annotation:Detection and monitoring of underground cavities belongs among important environmental risk assessments, on the other hand it is the aim of the research in archaeological and historical scientific studies. Geophysical (microgravimetry, ERT, GPR) and geodetic methods (LiDAR, InSAR, UAV photogrammetry) manifest a useful tool for underground cavities detection and monitoring. Aim of the proposed project is the study of their properties in methodical and also application area. By means of numerical modelling of cavities existence and development in geophysical fields we can obtain valuable information and use them in successful detection and monitoring of them in practice. Planned analysis of studied methods properties in the frame of practical use we would like to realize in localities in selected mining areas - historical and present ones (Horná Nitra and Banská Štiavnica sites) and during historical research of known cultural monuments (church of St. Martin in Bratislava and church of St. Nicholas in Trnava).
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2019

Seismic regime in the Malé Karpaty focal zone
Seizmický režim v zdrojovej oblasti Malé Karpaty
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Fojtíková Lucia PhD.
Annotation:The tectonic situation in the Malé Karpaty (Little Carpathians Mts.) area is complex and this source zone belongs to the most active parts of the Slovak territory. The main purpose of this project is an improvement of the knowledge of seismic regime of investigated area. Data obtained within the project are very important for seismic hazard studies and necessity of the complex seismic hazard evaluation of this area is increased by presence of close nuclear power plant Jaslovské Bohunice. To achieve the main goal of the project we plan to increase the precision of earthquake hypocenter location by using double difference HypoDD method, to improve focal mechanism solutions of local events (for new events and those already analyzed). We plan to use micro-arrays measurements for monitoring and locating weak events and identification of active faults and to use seismic noise measurements for improvement of knowledge of a seismic model in the area.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Stability and retrograde alterations of accessory minerals from the rocks of collisional orogenic zones
Stabilita a retrogádne premeny akcesorických minerálov v horninách kolíznych orogénnych zón
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Petrík Igor DrSc.
Annotation:The geological evolution of orogenic zones (in polymetamorphic terrains as in Western Carpathians) involves burial, metamorphism, magmatism, post-magmatic transformations, retrogression and subsequent metamorphism. Rocks adapt (re-equilibrate) to new conditions via reactions among their minerals. Here, accessory minerals (monazite, allanite, ilmenite, apatite, magnetite, ilmenite, rutile, kyanite, graphite, diamond) are very informative when reacting with rock-forming minerals (garnet, biotite, plagioclase, muscovite) by changing composition, or formation of new assemblages. The transformations of accessories (in addition to rock-forming) are extremely useful for derivation of pressure, temperature and fluid compositions using equilibrium reactions among them. Because theretrogression of UHP rocks is almost inevitable, often only the accessory minerals maintain information on peak conditions. The essence of the project is the study of transformations of these minerals and their use for geodynamic interpretations
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

Stability of accessory minerals and the mobility of rare lithophile elements and C in the rocks of collisional orogenic zones: prograde and retrograde transformations
Stabilita akcesorických minerálov a mobilita vzácnych litofilných prvkov a C v horninách kolíznych orogénnych zón: prográdne a retrográdne premeny
Program: SRDA
Project leader: RNDr. Petrík Igor DrSc.
Annotation: Project will deal with stabilities and transformations of accessory minerals (with emphasis to REE, Nb, Ta, C) from granitic and metamorphic rock in the process of subduction and exhumation. By the identification of primary and secondary phases and by quantification of the transformations (reactions among the phases) it is possible to derive P-T-X parameters of metamorphism and suggest a tectonic interpretation. Complex transformations of the accessories involve also rock-forming minerals which enables the calculation of reactions. In detail there will be studied REE minerals (allanite, monazite, and products of their alterations) along with apatite, Nb-Ta phases, tourmaline, Fe-Ti oxides according to the rock type. The study of monazite (non)stability has direct consequences for the age interpretation of complex grains. A special attention is given to transformation graphite-diamond in ultrahigh-pressure rocks. For successful solving the project goals proper terrains are suggested where, besides polymetamorphic rocks of the Western Carpathians, ultrahigh-pressure rocks of the Pohorje, Caledonides, and Rhodope Mts. are well developed. The project has a character of basic research but some of expected results are applicable to “nuclear ceramics” suggested for as materials for deposits of radioactive waste because knowledge of geochemical mobility during alteration is important for post-depositional risk estimates.
Duration: 1.7.2015 - 30.6.2019

Statistical analysis of long-term radon time series from Slovakia
Štatistická analýza dlhodobých časových radov kontinuálne meranej objemovej aktivity radónu na Slovensku
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Smetanová Iveta PhD.
Annotation:The project addresses the unsolved issue of the drivers of the variation of radon. High resolution monitoring of 222Rn activity concentration performed in different natural subsurface environments (boreholes, gallery, caves) in Slovakia yielded long time series. The temporal variation of radon, which contains periodic and non-periodic signals, spans variation of annual to diurnal scale. Time series of radon and environmental conditions will be systematically analyzed in the time and frequency domains. The derived statistical characteristics of the radon variation will be evaluated against those of the associated environmental parameters, to assess the eventual influence of the latter on radon in the gas phase. In addition, the characteristics of the radon time series will be evaluated in the light of recent conjectures attributing the influence of a component of solar irradiation on the periodic radon signals. The outcome of the investigation pertains also to the issue of the radon hazard to a human being.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

Cockroaches in amber
Šváby zo svetových jantárov
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Vršanský Peter PhD.
Annotation:Cockroaches are among the most significant groups of terrestrial fossil record and their study in this agency terminated in two succesfull projects (one selected excellent project of the agency, references both in Nature and Science). Project is summarising and studying more than 1000 amber cockroaches with at least 300 samples from the extremely rare Mesozoic ambers (from time of dinosaurs). Unique study contributes to the knowledge of the amber source ecosystems (paleoecology), detailed phylogenetical analysis (evolution), functional morphology and anatomy of Mesozoic animals including the sensorial systems, having no equivalent. The modest methods including synchrotron and newly developed are to be used.
Duration: 1.1.2014 - 31.12.2017

Timing, extent and depth of Late Pleistocene epizodic thawing of permafrost inferred from cave paleoclimatic records of Slovakia.
Vek, rozsah a hĺbka epizodického topenia permafrostu počas neskorého pleistocénu – údaje z jaskynných klimatických archívov Slovenska.
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Milovský Rastislav PhD.
Annotation:Paleoclimate studies based on high-resolution geochemical records (deep sea and ice cores, corals, speleothems) are increasingly important in present days of rapid climate change. In recent years the novel paleoclimatic indicator was discovered – the cryogenic cave carbonate. Its use is however not straightforward and demands deep understanding of its formation – thus it is not implemented as systematically as other archives. Nevertheless, an extra benefit is its ability to record thaw of permafrost and even its depth. This strongly favours the CCC to be subject of global climate studies, as the clathrate breakdown and methane escape from thawing permafrost is nowadays considered as an important trigger of global warmings. Aim of the project is thorough understanding of mechanisms and timing of cave glaciations relative to global climate oscillations, with endeavour to turn CCC to a robust tool for mapping extent and thickness of permafrost in different periods of the Weichselian glacial.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

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Vplyv krajiny a regulácii na spoločenstva bentosu tečúcich vôd
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Milovský Rastislav PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2019

High-pressure metamorphism in the crystalline complexes of the Western Carpathians
Vysokotlaková metamorfóza v kryštaliniku Západných Karpát
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Janák Marian DrSc.
Annotation:Eclogite facies rocks are a westige of deep crustal subduction during the orogenic cycle. The aim of a proposed project is study of high-presure, eclogite facies rocks in the crystalline complexes of the Western Carpathians. Identification of eclogite facies mineral assemblages and timing of metamorphism can be achieved using modern mineralogical, petrological and geochronological methods. In addition to the presence of eclogites, it is important to investigate the host rocks of eclogites, such as kyanite-bearing paragneisses and orthogneisses as well as metaultramafic rocks. It seems to be obvious that also these rocks, closely associated with metabasites, underwent high-pressure metamorphism. P-T conditions of metamorphism can be obtained from thermobarometric calculations and phase equilibria modeling. Timing of metamorphism and exhumation can be constrained by geochronological methods using different geochronometers. The reconstruction of metamorphic P-T-t paths followed by eclogite facies rocks can decipher the mode and timing of subduction and exhumation. This can provide a fundamental framework for elucidating the overall geodynamic evolution of the orogenic belt with implications for the geological history of the Western Carpathians.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2019

Evolution of monogentic rhyolite volcanoes
Vývoj monogenetických ryolitových vulkánov
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Lexa Jaroslav CSc.
Annotation:Rhyolite volcanoes represent a substantial part of Tertiary volcanites in Carpathians and Pannonian basin. They often host epithermal and VMS mineralizations and a suite of industrial mineral and stone deposits (perlites, silicites, clays, bentonites, zeolites, pumice and stone/aggregate). Explosive eruptions of rhyolites and pyroclastic flows associated with a growth of extrusive domes represent also a serious hazard in areas of active volcanism. A greater knowledge on processes and products of rhyolite volcanism is desirable. Also for the rhyolite volcanism there is characteristic formation of monogenetic volcanic fields. The project aims at paleovolcanic reconstruction of the Tertiary monogenetic rhyolite volcanoes in Slovakia and northern Hungary, characteristics of their eruption mechanism, their evolution in time and relationship among their evolution and form on one side and basement structure and magmatic source on the other side. We shall compile a generalized model of their evolution.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Tracing changes in seawater temperature during the end-Triassic mass extinction and during the Early Jurassic in the western Tethys (Western Carpathians and Eastern Alps)
Zmeny v teplote morskej vody počas masového vymierania na konci triasu a počas ranej jury (Západné Karpaty a Východné Alpy)
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Tomašových Adam PhD.
Annotation:Distribution, diversification, and extinction of marine organisms is fundamentally determined by factors that directly or indirectly affect their physiological processes. Presently, it is hypothesized that significant changes in temperature and seawater chemistry and changes in water-mass stratification triggered the end-Triassic mass extinction of marine invertebrates. Empirical testing of such hypotheses, however, requires generation of temporally- and spatially-explicit databases with paleotemperature estimates derived from geochemical and paleoecological proxies. Our goal is to determine temperature means, minima, and maxima, and onshore-offshore gradients in temperature during the Rhaetian and Early Jurassic (Hettangian-Pleinsbachian) in the NW Tethys (Western Carpathians and Eastern Alps) on the basis of brachiopods, bivalves, and foraminifers, using paleoecological analyses, stable isotopes, and Mg/Ca ratio, and to assess extinction selectivity in respect to population abundance and body size.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

The total number of projects: 41