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Institute: Astronomical Institute

Diagnostics of solar coronal structures with impulsively generated magnetoacoustic wave trains (observations and numerical simulations)
Diagnostika slnečných koronálnych štruktúr pomocou impulzívne generovaných magnetoakustických vĺn (pozorovania a numerické simulácie)
Program: Inter-academic agreement
Project leader: RNDr. Rybák Ján CSc.
Annotation:We develop our new concept of diagnostics of individual solar coronal structures (e.g. flare loops, flare current sheets) with impulsively generated magnetoacoustic wave trains. We plan to further study our present magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations of these waves for different coronal structures. Using our new methods of wavelet analysis, we plan to analyze the observations (also with a spatial resolution) of solar flares (e.g. complex observational event of unique solar flares) in a whole range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The main expected result is more realistic numerical MHD model of these magnetoacoustic waves, which allows us to determine the characteristic plasma parameters of the coronal structures as well as the relationship between individual coronal structures and impulsively generated magnetoacoustic waves propagating in these structures. The project results will be published in international refereed journals and presented at international conferences.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017

Two suns in the sky: search for circumbinary planets with the TEST telescope
Dve slnká na oblohe: hľadanie exoplanét okolo dvojhviezd s ďalekohľadom TEST
Program: Bilateral - other
Project leader: RNDr. Pribulla Theodor CSc.
Annotation:The project is aimed at search for planets orbiting eclipsing binaries based on the orbital-period changes. Revolution of a planet or a brown dwarf causes cyclic changes of the orbital period due to the finite speed of light. The changes can be detected from precise timing of the minimum light. The project includes modernisation and robotisation of telescope TEST at the TLS. Period analysis of eclipsing binaries observed with CoRoT is also one of the goals.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

Origins and evolution of life on Earth and in the Universe
Pôvod a evolúcia života na Zemi a vo vesmíre
Program: COST
Project leader: Mgr. Kaňuchová Zuzana PhD.
Annotation:The Action addresses three basic questions that fascinate and intrigue scientists, and the general public alike, questions that are pivotal to our understanding and appreciation of our place in the universe. Where, when and how did life emerge and evolve on Earth? What are the conditions under which life can exist? Does life exist elsewhere in the Universe and, if it does, how can it be detected and identified? The Action has specifically excluded the search for intelligent extraterrestrial life in its portfolio. Creationist theorems are also outside the Action’s remit.
Duration: 15.5.2014 - 14.5.2018

Preparatory Phase for the European Solar Telescope.
Prípravná fáza pre Európsky slnečný ďalekohľad.
Program: Horizon 2020
Project leader: Mgr. Gömöry Peter PhD.
Annotation:The European Solar Telescope (EST) will be a revolutionary Research Infrastructure that will play a major role in answering key questions in modern Solar Physics. This 4-meter class solar telescope, to be located in the Canary Islands, will provide solar physicists with the most advanced state-of-the-art observing tools to transform our understanding of the complex phenomena that drive the solar magnetic activity. The principal objective of the present Preparatory Phase is to provide both the EST international consortium and the funding agencies with a detailed plan regarding the implementation of EST. The specific objectives of the proposed preparatory phase are: 1) to explore possible legal frameworks and related governance schemes that can be used by agencies to jointly establish, construct and operate EST as a new research infrastructure, with the implementation of an intermediate temporary organisational structure, as a previous step for future phases of the project; 2) to explore funding schemes and funding sources for EST, including a proposal of financial models to make possible the combination of direct financial and in-kind contributions towards the construction and operation of EST; 3) to compare the two possible sites for EST in the Canary Islands Astronomical Observatories and prepare final site agreements; 4) to engage funding agencies and policy makers for a long-term commitment which guarantees the construction and operation phases of the Telescope; 5) to involve industry in the design of EST key elements to the required level of definition and validation for their final production; 6) to enhance and intensify outreach activities and strategic links with national agencies and the user communities of EST.
Duration: 1.4.2017 - 31.3.2021

The study of interplanetary matter in the Earth’s vicinity
Štúdium medziplanetárnej hmoty v blízkosti Zeme
Program: Inter-academic agreement
Project leader: Mgr. Husárik Marek PhD.
Annotation:The Earth is constantly bombarded by interplanetary matter objects. The main goal is the study of the solid part of the interplanetary matter with Earth's atmosphere interaction, primarily meteors, and also photometric study of the asteroids. The meteors can provide us much refined and brand new knowledge of the parent bodies – comets and asteroids. The project is focused to the faint meteors observations in the Earth's atmosphere using double-station experiments with sensitive TV and videocameras. Bright meteors – fireballs – will be recorded by the European Fireball Network cameras installed on the each partner territory. Asteroids and comets will be observed in the Slovakia by the telescopes at Skalnate Pleso Observatory with 0.61-m Newton and with new 1.3-m Cassegrain-Nasmyth, and in the Czech Republic by the 0.65-m telescope in Ondřejov. Asteroid shape models will be computed from the photometric data. It will also be analyzed any connection of meteor streams with asteroids as potential parent bodies.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

Early evolution of CMEs and associated dimming regions
Štúdium počiatočných fáz vývoja výronov koronálnej hmoty a vlastností súvisiacich oblastí koronálneho dimmingu v slnečnej atmosfére
Program: Bilateral - other
Project leader: Mgr. Gömöry Peter PhD.
Annotation:In the low plasma beta corona, the restructuring of the magnetic field dictates the dynamics of a coronal mass ejection (CME), i) by setting the properties of the internal magnetic field of the CME which will generate the outward Lorentz force acting on the presumed flux rope, and ii) by altering the confining properties of the ambient coronal field. Studying CME kinematics close to the Sun thus gives unique information on the net force acting on the CME during its formation and, therefore, the magnetic energy injected in the flux rope. This early-evolution phase is also crucial for a better understanding of CME dynamics in interplanetary space. On statistical basis, the lower the CME starts in the corona the faster the maximum acceleration and speed that is reached (Bein et al., 2011, ApJ 738, article id. 191). In this respect, shock formation of fast CMEs is another key point, which is not fully understood by our current knowledge about CMEs. We will use data from a combination of instruments which are capable of observing in detail the low corona in intensity as well as magnetic and Doppler fields. These instruments will deliver ground-breaking new data in order to adequately address the early CME acceleration as well as shock formation processes and magnetic field restructuring, a key issue for a better understanding of CME dynamics in interplanetary space and forecasting of space weather.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017

Waves in fine-scale structures of the solar chromosphere
Vlny v maloškálových štruktúrach chromosféry Slnka
Program: Bilateral - other
Project leader: Mgr. Koza Július PhD.
Annotation:Fine-scale magnetic structures (spicules, fibrils and mottles) are small jet-like phenomena in the solar chromosphere. They may significantly contribute to the heating of the solar chromosphere/corona and may supply the corona by required mass, which is taken away by the solar wind. Therefore, to study the detailed dynamics of these structures may help us to solve the paramount problems of solar physics. Excellent spatial, temporal and spectral resolution and seeing-free vantage point of the recently launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) has already brought important breakthroughs in understanding of these jet-like phenomena. An aim of this project is to contribute to this research by observation of various modes of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating along chromospheric fine structures. Mode identifications and measured properties will be used in estimation of wave energy flux and magnetic field strength using chromospheric magnetoseismology. A particular attention will be paid to the accurate classification of observed MHD wave modes and their stability in flowing partially ionized plasmas. To accomplish this aim we will combine high-resolution observations obtained by the IRIS satellite with data obtained by the ground-based instruments CRISP at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope and GFPI at the 1.5-m GREGOR telescope (if available), and solutions of MHD equations in partially ionized plasma. All these observing and interpretation tools are on the forefront of solar physics.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017

Evolution of Solar Activity over a Solar Cycle – from Statistics to Physics
Vývoj slnečnej aktivity počas slnečného cyklu – od štatistiky k fyzike
Program: Bilateral - other
Project leader: RNDr. Rybák Ján CSc.
Annotation:We will investigate evolution of solar features over the solar cycle 24 using the high resolution SDO/HMI and SDO/AIA observations and using the spectroheliogramsgrams taken by the Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory in Coimbra (Portugal). The main aim is to get more detailed knowledge on statistical distribution of solar features on the solar disc. Using this knowledge we would like to provide a more conclusive information limiting variety of physical mechanisms proposed for the solar dynamo action. Special software tools for detection, identification and automatic tracking of various solar phenomena was already developed by the project team and it will be extended and improved in order to reach the proposed goals. Two main properties of the solar cycle activity will be in focus of the project work, namely: north-south asymetry and differential rotation fo the solar activity features including the tiny sunspots. A multidisciplinary team will work on the project: specialists in solar physics providing knowledge about solar cycles and space weather phenomena and specialists in software computing with expertise in image processing, feature detection, identification and automatic tracking.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017

The total number of projects: 8