The Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology of Slovak Academy of Sciences (IPGB SAS) was established in 1990 as an Institute of Plant Genetics with preferential orientation towards solving actual problems of plant genetics and breeding of selected agriculturally important crops plants, forest and fruit trees. By means of implementation of modern biotechnology techniques, the research activities have subsequently been extended covering also the fields of biotechnology and gene ingeneering. With regard to this fact, the Presidium of SAS proved in 1998 the change of Institute name to the Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology SAS. At present time, the Institute is routinely using a broad range of methods and techniques of molecular biology, physiology, cytology, genomics and proteomics for improvement of plant reproduction process, differentiation and regeneration of cells from isolated tissues and plant organs but also in regulation of these processes to the genome level. The objective of such an approach is to improve some economically important traits and properties of crops and to increase their resistance to pathogens.