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Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review


Volume 47, 2015, No. 2

Content:


 

nekrolog:

 
  Prof. Mgr. Ladislav Macháček, CSc. (* 21. 7. 1942 – † 30. 1. 2015)
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Monika Čambáliková, Robert Klobucký


Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 47, 2015, No. 2: 217-217.

 
 

recenzia:

 
  Baláž, Anton: Príbeh Jána Lajčiaka. Prehovor Ezechiel
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Ľudovít Turčan


Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 47, 2015, No. 2: 218-222.

 
  Maslowski, Nicolas - Šubrt, Jiří a kol: Kolektivní paměť. K teoretickým otázkám.
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Adela Kvasničková


Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 47, 2015, No. 2: 222-226.

 
  Petrusek, Miloslav: Marx, marxismus a sociologie. Texty z pozůstalosti 1
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Juraj Halas


Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 47, 2015, No. 2: 226-232.

 
 

study:

 
  Rational Choice Theory in Contemporary Sociology of Religion
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Dušan Lužný

sociology of religion; rational choice theory; economic model of religion; religious market; Rodney Stark

Rational Choice Theory in Contemporary Sociology of Religion. The report focuses on one of the most influential theories that is discussed in contemporary academic studies of religion and sociology of religion. Whilst in European sociology the theory of secularization dominates, in America there is an influence of Rational Choice Theory particularly represented by Rodney Stark, William Bainbridge, Roger Finke and Laurence Iannaccone. Our text lists the basic principles, standpoints and conclusions of Rational Choice Theory in sociology of religion and presents main points of criticism of this approach. The text also mentions several weaknesses of the criticism, particularly the disputable demand to criticize the basic axioms in deductive theory building and the request to see this Rational Choice Theory as a specific approach that can be applied in American environment only. The study sees the Rational Choice Theory as a possible challenge for further thinking and forming of contemporary sociology of religion. Sociológia 2015, Vol. 47 (No. 2: 151-170)

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 47, 2015, No. 2: 151-170.

 
  Theoretical Basis and Empirical Knowledge of the Relationship Between Unemployment and Crime and its Specific Features in Slovakia
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Anton Michálek

crime; unemployment; theory of rational choice; theory of standard activities; theory of anomie; regions of Slovakia

Theoretical Basis and Empirical Knowledge of the Relationship Between Unemployment and Crime and its Specific Features in Slovakia. The article focuses on a theme that is complex in terms of data, methodology and argumentation. The principal aim is to provide relevant theoretical basis and empirical knowledge about the existence of relationship between unemployment and crime. Other equally important objective is the research and acquisition of knowledge about the above-mentioned relationship in Slovakia while the more detailed analysis of the relationship between unemployment and four selected kinds of crime was given special attention. Based on the knowledge drawn from existing literature and using the Spearman correlation coefficient, dependence between the above-mentioned two phenomena was studied. Regional data of the Crime Statistics in the Slovak Republic for 53 police wards obtained from the Ministry of Interior of the SR and the Regional data about unemployment of the Statistical Office of the SR were used in this analysis. The data were statistically processed and a map providing the picture about spatial distribution of unemployed perpetrators was compiled. Results of the carried out analysis contradict the hypothesis about any significant correlation between unemployment and the studied kinds of crime. The values of correlation coefficients in all cases pointed to a weak and in one case (violent crime) zero correlation. Results and knowledge about the ambivalent relationship between the studied phenomena indicate that in Slovakia the nature of theft or larceny is driven by greed rather than necessity. The identified non-dependence also indicates that the theory of standard activities or that of number of opportunities and life style better explain the studied relationship. From the scientific point of view, the hypothesis about dependence between the studied phenomena that were analysed based on the regional data in Slovakia has not been confirmed. However, further study of the quoted relationships and analysis of longer time intervals and/or inclusion of other kinds of crime is necessary. It is also necessary to interpret the results in the framework of criminological, sociological, economic and other theories. From the point of view of applied sphere it is necessary to identify the common and specific feature and causes in regions that determine the level of crime. Research oriented in this way may provide the necessary information and knowledge for identification of crime determinants in Slovakia and to expand the possibilities of search for causes, conditions and factors of crime in particular regions of Slovakia. Sociológia 2015, Vol. 47 (No. 2: 171-190)

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 47, 2015, No. 2: 171-190.

 
  Choice of unmarried cohabitaton in the context of social and situational pressure
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Gabriela Tydlitátová

unmarried cohabitation; structural and cultural view; autonomous-pressure manoeuvring; social pressure; situational pressure; grounded theory

Choice of unmarried cohabitaton in the context of social and situational pressure. Increasing occurrence of unmarried cohabitation as the first form of a coresidential union of the young generation in the post-revolutionary period in Slovakia and its preferring to former direct entering into marriage union creates space for variable interpretations. On one hand, there is a tendency to view the phenomenon as a manifestation of the value-change in the population. On the other one, it is argumented by postponing or rejecting marriage as a result of worsened social-economic conditions. Presented qualitative research with its conclusions primarily supports the statement about cultural aspects of transformation of the society, although the legitimacy of the second course of interpretation can not be completly ignored. Results are presented in a broader contextual frame. In accordance with the grounded theory method the author discovers a decision-making process of entering into an unmarried cohabitation. It is identified as a process of autonomous-pressure manoeuvring in the context of different intensity of social and situational pressure, faced by actors in the crucial moment. Consequently, the author constructs four cohabiting types – independent initiators, stimulated individualists, resisting autonomists and reformed traditionalists. Sociológia 2015, Vol. 47 (No. 2: 191-216)

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. Volume 47, 2015, No. 2: 191-216.