Information Page of SAS Organisation

Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology

International projects

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Dohoda o spolupráci medzi ÚNPF SAV a Ústavom základného psychologického výskumu a výskumných metód Fakulty psychológie Univerzity Viedeň
Program: Medziústavná dohoda
Project leader: MUDr. Riečanský Igor PhD.
Duration: 1.4.2015 - 31.12.2017

Sensorimotor - Postural and core stability in association with respiratory functions in healthy and lung transplant individuals
Stabilita postoja a trupu vo vzťahu k respiračným funkciám u zdravých jedincov a po transplantácii pľúc
Program: Bilaterálne - iné
Project leader: Ing. Hlavačka František CSc.
Annotation:Lung transplantation has been shown to be effective as a treatment for fatal and severe cardiopulmonary diseases. In addition to survival, one goal of performing lung transplantation is improvement in functioning and health. Several factors contribute to the maximal work capacity achievable after transplantation. Before surgery, patients are usually debilitated from the primary disease and long-term inactivity, and the unavoidable complications of allograft transplantation,mainly lung resection, and toxic effects of immunosuppressant therapy contribute to the reduced functional capacity. While numerous investigators have described the features of the respiratory and skeletal muscle function before and after surgery, little information is currently available regarding the functional outcomes, such as strength and power, speed of step initiation, postural and core stability, and so forth. It is mainly due to a lack of a standard evaluation system of these abilities. Recently, we have developed new methodology for assessment of postural sway and breathing movements of the chest using wireless accelerometers. Yet, it was not tested in lung transplant patients and no investigations related to the relationship of variables of neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions were carried out. Therefore, we will assess postural and core stability, muscle strength and cardiorespiratory functions using posturography, surface EMG, accelerometry and clinical tests in healthy young and elderly individuals and lung transplant patients. The findings will serve as a basis for better understanding of association between related variables in these people. As a result of the project will be elaborated methodology for testing of neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions using novel techniques specifically designed for target population. Such objective and less time-consuming assessment can be well fitted in an out-patients department and complement so existing diagnostic methods.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017


National projects

How synchrony shapes human social bonding: mechanisms and neural pathways
Ako synchronizácia formuje sociálne väzby: mechanizmy a neuronálne dráhy
Program: SASPRO
Project leader: MUDr. Riečanský Igor PhD.
Annotation:Human societies are characterized by flexibly changing social groups with remarkably strong bonds. A striking, universal characteristic of bonded groups is a widespread tendency their members to synchronize their movements. Such behavioral synchronization supports deindividuation, cooperation, and group solidarity. However, the psychological and neural mechanisms of the link between synchrony and bonding are poorly understood. This project aims to fill this gap by using a multi-level social neuroscience approach based on a series of behavioral, functional neuroimaging and psychopharmacological experiments. Insights from the project will advance our understanding of the complex processes of social behavior. The principal investigator of this project is Dr. Jasminka Majdandzic.
Duration: 1.5.2015 - 30.4.2018

Effect of lyophylisate Cornus mas L. on cardiometabolic and inflammatory parameters in experimental metabolic syndrome
Efekt lyofilizátu Cornus mas L. na kardiometabolické a zápalové parametre pri experimentálnom metabolickom syndróme
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Doc.MUDr. Lietava Ján CSc.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

NOSCHIZ - Interaction of nitrergic, neurotrophic and endocrine signaling in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia
Interakcia nitrergickej, neurotrofickej a endokrinnej signalizácie v etiopatogenéze schizofrénie
Program: APVV
Project leader: MUDr. Riečanský Igor PhD.
Annotation:Schizophrenia is a common and severe mental disorder but its pathogenesis is yet poorly understood. Susceptibility to schizophrenia is largely genetic but the genetic predisposition is determined in a complex network of interactions between multiple risk genes and environmental factors, resulting in disordered brain development and function. There is increasing evidence that chronic stress and dysregulation of several signaling pathways plays role in the neurodevelopmental impairment underlying schizophrenia. In this project, by adopting a multidisciplinary approach, we will address at several levels (genetic, neurobiological and behavioral) a candidate pathophysiological pathway, involving nitrergic, neurotrophic and stress signaling, which might be importantly involved in the disordered brain development in schizophrenia. A focus on schizophrenia endophenotypes will enable us to integrate findings from human subjects at genetic risk of the disorder with those from a rodent neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. This project will bring important new knowledge on the etiopathogenesis of this devastating disorder and potential novel strategies of its treatment.
Duration: 1.7.2015 - 30.6.2019

KANASTA - Cardiovascular Effects of Nanoencapsulated Simvastain and Coenzyme Q10 in Experimental Hyperlipidemia (KANASTA)
Kardiovaskulárne účinky nanoenkapsulovaného simvastatínu a koenzýmu Q10 pri experimentálnej hyperlipidémii (KANASTA)
Program: Iné projekty
Project leader: RNDr. Reháková Radoslava
Annotation:The project is aimed to investigate cardiovascular effects of simvastatin together with CoQ10 in experimental hyperlipidemia and to increase bioavailability of simvastatin in the liver, thus reducing the daily dose and consequently to prevent the reduction of CoQ10 levels.
Duration: 27.11.2015 - 26.11.2018

Mechanisms involved in uric acid-induced endothelial dysfunction depending on the age and genetic predisposition to hypertension
Mechanizmy zahrnuté v endotelovej dysfunkcii indukovanej kyselinou močovou v závislosti od veku a genetickej predispozície k hypertenzii
Program: VEGA
Project leader: MUDr. RNDr. Púzserová Angelika PhD.
Annotation:Studies have shown a significant relationship between increased concentration of uric acid in the blood (hyperuricaemia) and cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. But there is little information on the mechanisms by which uric acid can lead to end-organ damage. Hyperuricaemia combined with hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction. However, the mechanisms by which hyperuricaemia causes endothelial dysfunction are not clarified. This project aims to clarify the relationship of hyperuricaemia and hypertension, especially in terms of endothelial function. The aim is to bring new results highlighting the impact of elevated concentrations of uric acid on the endothelium, and to reveal the mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction in conductive and resistant arteries isolated from peri-pubertal and adult normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive rats. The results will contribute to the knowledge about pathophysiology of hyperuricaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Design and implementation of visual biofeedback for the rehabilitation of mobility deficiencies in patients with low back pain
Návrh a implementácia metodiky pre rehabilitáciu pacientov s bolesťami chrbta s využitím zrakového biofeedbacku
Program: APVV
Project leader: Ing. Hlavačka František CSc.
Annotation:The main goal of this project is to design, optimize and implement a specialized method for the improved rehabilitation of mobility deficiencies in patients suffering from low back pain (LBP). The system will be equipped with accurate inertial measuring units embedded with highly sensitive micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) accelerometers and gyroscopes, as well as a force platform providing input signals that will be processed and displayed back to the patient (visual biofeedback). LBP is a worldwide health problem affecting people of all ages, with recurring symptoms. Based on positive long-term experiences with visual biofeedback, the project strives to design an effective rehabilitation program for the improvement of impaired trunk mobility during sitting, and also impaired balance control during stance in LBP patients. The project not only includes the accurate acquisition of postural data, but also the development of software which will process, interpret and display this data in an easy to understand way. The software is intended to be easily operated and include training tasks that can be personalized to patient specific requirements. The ultimate goal of the project is to implement complex sensor systems capable of accurate measurements but process the data into an easy to use and easy to interpret rehabilitation tool for improving postural and motor function deficiencies in patients suffering from LBP.
Duration: 1.7.2017 - 30.6.2019

NO-NEW-REG - New regulatory effects of nitric oxide and their role in the development of essential hypertension
Nové regulačné účinky oxidu dusnatého a ich úloha v rozvoji esenciálnej hypertenzie
Program: APVV
Project leader: RNDr. Čačányiová Soňa PhD.
Annotation:High blood pressure is a main risk factor in sustained increased morbidity and mortality of humans suffering cardiovascular diseases. Understanding of causes leading to hypertension enable to reveal new preventive and therapeutic decisions. A new regulatory system involved in vessel tree regulation seems to be neuronal NOsynthase (nNOS) and its interactions with other regulatory systems. On the level of the kidney nNOS signal pathway interferes with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and sulfide signalization (H2S), and the interactions among them are the unexplored area of regulatory mechanisms. nNOS in macula densa stimulate renin syntesis and via it influences RAS and sympathetic nerve system, on the other hand, H2S inhibits renin synthesis. Moreover, the regulatory pathways of nNOS and also endothelial eNOS could interact with endogenous NOS inhibitor, asymmetric dimetylarginine ADMA, on local as well as systemic level. The aim of the project is to study the effect of interactions of NO/nNOS/eNOS signalization with mentioned regulatory pathways (RAS, H2S, ADMA) on cardiovascular system and to find out their role in the specificity of nNOS and/or eNOS action in the conditions of essential hypertension. The availability of the results will be reached via using complex approach (functional, molecular, morphological). Moreover, on the level of acute experiments, we will confront selectedbiochemical markers of perivascular adipose tissue (plasma/serum) as well as vasoactive responses of arteries isolated from normotensive and hypertensive rats with biochemical markers and reactivity of vessels isolated after nephrectomy from normotensive patients and patients with essential hypertension.
Duration: 1.7.2016 - 30.6.2020

Stress-induced pressor responses: endothelial factors vs. central regulation of sympathetic tone
Odpovede krvného tlaku indukované stresom: endotelové faktory vs. centrálna regulácia sympatikového tonusu
Program: Vedecko-technické projekty
Project leader: RNDr. Bernátová Iveta DrSc.
Annotation:Acute stress is considered to be a factor that may participate in stroke and heart attack. Mechanisms involved may be associated with inadequate acute stress-induced elevation of blood pressure (BP). On the basis of our previous joint research the aim of this project is to reveal differences in mechanisms involved in acute stress-induced pressor responses in adult normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. We will determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) in central regulation of sympathetic tone as well as the role of endothelium-derived factors (EDFs) such as NO, superoxide and hydrogen sulfide, in modulation of stress-induced BP responses. Acute stress will be induced by air-jet to the face of the rat. The effect of particular BP regulation systems will be investigated using inhibitors specific for the given system such as pentolinium (SNS), tempol (ROS), selective inhibitors of nNOS, iNOS and eNOS and other substances to inhibit selected EDFs. Resolving differences in acute stress-induced pressor responses could provide mechanism for selective prevention of dangerous stress-induced BP increase in hypertensive subjects and thus in prevention of stress-provoked stroke and heart attack.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017

Protection of the mechanisms modulating endothelial permeability in the heart
Ochrana mechanizmov modulujúcich permeabilitu endotelu v srdci
Program: VEGA
Project leader: MUDr. RNDr. Púzserová Angelika PhD.
Annotation:Bacterial endotoxin damages function of vascular endothelium. Dysfunction of endothelium accompanied with increased permeability represents a critical moment for atherosclerotic heart diseases. It is known that endothelial permeability is regulated by tight junctions (TJs), while endogeneous mechanisms modulating TJ function in heart endothelium during inflammation have not yet been studied. The project is focused on the study of endotoxin effects on expression of occluding, a primary protein of TJ in heart tissue. We will focuse on the study of endogeneous molecular mechanisms modulating occluding expression and TJ function. Next goal of project will be to examine the effect of selected natural substances with antiinflammatory properties on occludin expression and molecular mechanisms modulating TJ function. The understanding of the mechanisms through which natural substances could protect endothelial permeability might find the perspective application in protection of heart function against injury.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

Nitric oxide and brain redox status in an experimental neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia
Oxid dusnatý a redoxný stav mozgu v experimentálnom neurovývinovom modeli schizofrénie
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Vranková Stanislava PhD.
Annotation:Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder. Research suggests that an important role its pathophysiology may play the oxidative stress, i.e., redox imbalance in neurons of the central nervous system, leading to an impairment of brain development. This redox imbalance might be caused by an overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, this project is focused at the role of NO in brain development. We will adopt the postweaning social isolation rearing of rats, which is an established neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. We will explore whether social isolation affects NO synthesis in the brain and whether NO production is linked with redox status of the brain tissue and schizophrenia-like behavioral alterations. We will also explore whether the changes in neurobiology and behavior, induced by isolation rearing, can be positively influenced by an antioxidative treatment. Results of this project will contribute to elucidating the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and its treatment possibilities.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

Protection of hypertensive and failure heart by I(f) channel blocker ivabradin: comparison with ACE inhibition and melatonin
Protekcia hypertenzného a zlyhávajúceho srdca blokátorom I(f) kanálu ivabradínom: porovnanie s ACE-inhibíciou a melatonímom
Program: VEGA
Project leader: doc. RNDr. Pecháňová Oľga DrSc.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Protective effect of NO and CO donors in experimental myocardial infarction with hypertensive complications
Protektívny účinok NO a CO donorov pri experimentálnom infarkte myokardu s hypertenzívnymi komplikáciami
Program: VEGA
Project leader: doc. RNDr. Pecháňová Oľga DrSc.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

NO and H2S signal pathways and their interaction in the control of vascular tone during early developmental stage of experimental hypertension
Signálne dráhy NO a H2S a ich interakcia v regulácii cievneho tonusu počas skorej fázy vývoja experimentálnej hypertenzie
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Čačányiová Soňa PhD.
Annotation:Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) belong to important gaseous molecules engaged to vascular smooth muscle regulation during normotensive as well as hypertensive conditions. In adult rats it is well documented the role of NO originated from endothelial isoform of NO-synthase, the specificity and originality of NO released from neuronal isoform of enzyme as well as the existence of specific NO-H2S interaction – not just yet identified nitroso-sulphide signalization. The aim of the project is to characterize and compare the role of NO and H2S, their signal pathways and interaction, in young normotensive rats and in rats with developing experimental hypertension(NO-deficient and essential hypertension. Simultaneous following of both signal pathways on the same vessels isolated from normotensive and hypertensive rats and humans represents the actual way how to associate the results of basic research with clinical praxis.
Duration: 1.1.2014 - 31.12.2017

Specific methods and innovative procedures for assessing performance in athletes and physical fitness in the general population
Špecifické metódy a inovované postupy posudzovania výkonnosti športovcov a telesnej zdatnosti bežnej populácie
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Bzdúšková Diana PhD.
Annotation:The project will design specific tests and innovative methodological procedures for assessing performance in athletes and physical fitness in the general population. These will be based on analysis of performance in selected sports and age specificities of the general population. Methodology of measurement and data analysis with the highest accuracy of motor abilities evaluation will be verified. Their ability to differentiate between and within groups differences will also be evaluated. Part of the project will be testing guidance scales on groups of elite athletes of selected sports and large population of varied ages. This will provide a basis for testing protocols and recommendations for utilization of novel diagnostic methods in practice. Such diagnostics taking into account specific conditions of particular sports and age specificities represent significant shift in obtaining relevant information on performance in athletes and physical fitness in the general population and their longitudinal changes.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2019

H2S-NO - Study of biological effects of H2S/NO products and molecular mechanism of their actions
Štúdium biologických účinkov produktov H2S/NO interakcie a molekulárne mechanizmy ich pôsobenia
Program: APVV
Project leader: RNDr. Čačányiová Soňa PhD.
Annotation:Now it is well acknowledged that endogenously produced H2S affects and is involved in regulation of many physiological and pathological functions of living organisms. It is suggested that biological effects of H2S might not result from actions of H2S alone, but from its oxidation products, which come from e.g. interaction of H2S with NO. Last four years, our “international” group indentified the following products of H2S and NO interaction: nitrosopersulfide (SSNO−), polysulfides (HSn−) and dinitrososulfite [N-nitrosohydroxylamine-N-sulfonate (SULFI/NO) (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 112, 2015, E4651-E4660). Biological effects and molecular mechanisms of these products are not completely understood Therefore the aim of our project is to explore biological effects of the products of H2S/NO interactions and to study their molecular mechanism of their actions. Particularly, as a continuation of our research, we will study their effects on rat blood pressure and aortic rings relaxation. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of their biological effects, we will study their influence on expression of enzymes that endogenously produce H2S (CBS, CSE and 3-MST), on intracellular membrane channels, concentration of intracellular calcium, lipid peroxidation and their antioxidant properties. Goal of the project is also to find out, if studied compounds could provide us with information leading to a drug design based on their molecular structure, what could be an object for next application studies and lead to implementation in medical praxis.
Duration: 1.7.2016 - 30.6.2020

NANOSIMKA - Effects of nanoencapsulated simvastatin on cardiovascular system in experimental metabolic syndrome
Účinok nanoenkapsulovaného simvastatínu na kardiovaskulárny systém pri experimentálnom metabolickom syndróme
Program: APVV
Project leader: doc. RNDr. Pecháňová Oľga DrSc.
Duration: 1.7.2015 - 30.6.2019

The effect of STAT1 and ISG15 inhibitors on biochemical and morphological parameters in experimental myocardial infarction
Účinok STAT1 a ISG15 inhibítorov na biochemické a morfologické parametre pri experimentálnom infarkte myokardu
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Cebová Martina PhD.
Annotation:Myocardial infarction (MI) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation and metabolic diseases are the main causes of MI. Hypertension is the most serious risk factors which worsen the prognosis of MI via induction of oxidative and inflammatory mediators. Chronic ischemia leads to irreversible myocardial damage. Reperfusion of myocardium may potentially save myocardial function, paradoxically, this process causes further damage of the myocardium and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes along with upregulation of STAT1 and ISG15. Thus, it is important to study different molecules which may block or revers pathological processes in myocardial reperfusion injury following MI at different levels. Therefore, the aim of our study is to analyze the effects of STAT1 and ISG15 inhibitors on reperfusion injury in the experimental model of MI (ischemia-reperfusion injury after STEMI revascularization) and determination of pathophysiological changes in this process.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2019

The role of perivascular adipose tissue in the regulation of vascular tone in rats with cardiovascular dysfunction
Úloha perivaskulárneho tukového tkaniva v regulácii cievneho tonusu u potkanov s kardiovaskulárnou dysfunkciou
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Zemančíková Anna PhD.
Annotation:Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) which surrounds most of the systemic arteries is considered to be an important modulator of their functions. Relaxant factors produced by this tissue inhibit vascular contractile responses to many vasoconstrictor substances. The aim of this project is to analyse the mechanisms which are responsible for this modulatory effect. In addition to the direct action of the PVAT-released substances on vascular smooth muscle we intend to study also the possible interaction of PVAT with vascular sympathetic nervous system. These interactions are important for maintaining vascular tone in physiological as well as in pathological conditions associated with vascular dysfunction, e.g. in hypertension. Our goal is to discover whether the changes in paracrine functions of PVAT may participate in the origin of vascular disorders and whether they precede the abnormalities of vascular reactivity at the level of smooth muscle.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

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Vplyv konštitučných faktorov redoxnej regulácie na endofenotypové znaky schizofrénie
Program: VEGA
Project leader: MUDr. Riečanský Igor PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

Age-related changes in sensory control of balance during sit-to-stand and gait
Vplyv veku na senzorickú reguláciu rovnováhy pri vstávaní zo sedu a chôdzi
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Hlavačka František CSc.
Annotation:The ability to reliably perform functional movements like sit-to-stand, gait or maintaining the erect posture is a basis for the independent living. Difficulties with conducting these motor activities increase with age. Early diagnostics and suitable therapeutic interventions can help to moderate these problems and prevent falls. The goal of our project is to obtain new knowledge about the physiological mechanisms of sit-to-stand movement and gait in young and elderly adults, and also to expand information about the sensory influence on these motor functions. We will focus on analysis of balance control in static and dynamic conditions during sit-to-stand, step initiation and gait using unique 6-camera motion capture system BTS SMART-DX. We assume that results of our project would be worthwhile in designing of perspective rehabilitative methods for elderly people with mobility deficit to improve their balance and functional mobility, and also to enhance diagnostics of early stages of neurological disorders.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

Cognitive skills form the perspective of functional asymmetry of the brain
Vzťah kognitívnych schopností a funkčnej asymetrie mozgových heimsfér
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Cimrová Barbora PhD.
Annotation:Recent research using dichotic stimulation and a visual half-field technique indicate that sex differences in cognitive skills could be connected with lateralization of perceptual cognitive functions particularly because men and women differ not only in cognitive skills but also in degree of lateralization of cognitive functions. In general, perceptual asymmetries are greater in men. An assumtion is that a certain degree of the leftward lateralization (but not the maximal lateralization) is optimal for verbal functions, so that high left hemisphere lateralization is not associated with superior performance. Therefore, women outperform men in verbal tasks. In nonverbal task, a greater degree of lateralization towards the right hemisphere is associated with better performance. The proposed project will try to answer a question whether a degree of lateralization could explain the variation in performance within the groups of men and women. The sex differences in lateralization will be explored as well.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

Projects total: 23