Information Page of SAS Organisation

Plant Science and Biodiversity Center

International projects

Looking for suitable genetic markers for species recognison in Russula subgenus Polychromidia
Hľadanie genetických markerov pre rozlíšenie druhov v rámci Russula podrodu Polychromidia
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: Mgr. Adamčík Slavomír PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017

The quest for tolerant varieties - Phenotyping at plant and cellular level
Hľadanie tolerantných odrôd - fenotypovanie na úrovni rastliny a bunky
Program: COST
Project leader: RNDr. Salaj Terézia DrSc.
Annotation:The project is focused on the study of physiological, biochemical and structural aspects of somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis is development of embryos from somatic cells of a plant body under in vitro conditions. The process involves several steps as initiation of embryogenic tissues, maturation and germination of somatic embryos and transfer to soil. Each of the mentioned steps will be studied in details with aim to improve the process. The role of nutrient medium composition and explants will be tested for the initiation.The structure of somatic embryos will be followed by light microscopy.For maintenance of embryogenic tissues solid or liquid media will be used as well as for their long-term cultivation the method of cryopreservation will be tested. The maturation of somatic embryos is a very important step resulting in the whole plant (somatic seedlings) regeneration. The project focuses also on the optimization of maturation process and plantlet regeneration. An important part of the project is the study of embryogenic tissues and comparison to nonembryogenic callus culture by analysis using proteomic methods to get deeper insight to the process of somatic embryogenesis.
Duration: 22.5.2014 - 21.5.2018

CHIAGP - Chitinases and AGPs as proteins diversifying genotypes with high ability to microspore embryogenesis from non-embryogenic in crops
Chitinázy a AGPs ako proteíny diverzifikujúce genotypy s vysokou schopnosťou mikrospórovej embryogenézy z ne-embryogénnych plodín
Program: Bilaterálne - iné
Project leader: Ing. Moravčíková Jana PhD.
Annotation:The project is aimed at linking of the two research laboratories with expertise on embryogenesis (Poland) and molecular analysis (Slovakia). It is dedicated to the study and optimization of androgenesis for rye as a tool for more efficient breeding through dihaploid lines. On biological materials with contrasting androgenic potential it will be evaluated the effect of action of abiotic factors such as cold and osmotic stress. It will be studied in detail the changes in accumulation of chitinase enzymes and arabinogalactans, which in model plants had a beneficial effect on androgenesis. Results of the project are intended to impart the knowledge about the process of androgenesis and factors affecting its efficacy in rye.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017

NNEXT - Non-native tree species for european forests - experiences, risks and opportunities
Nepôvodné druhy drevín pre európske lesy - skúsenosti, riziká a možnosti
Program: COST
Project leader: RNDr. Kormuťák Andrej DrSc.
Annotation:The management of tree species non-native to European geographical regions has a long tradition within forestry management practice. Their introduction to Europe (initially focussed on growing tree species) dates back to the 18th century when enormous demands were being made on natural resources to sustain the on-going industrialization of Europe. Today issues of biomass production and C sequestration as well as the question of whether these species could increase the adaptive capacity of forests to long-term climate change patterns have fuelled a growing interest in non-native tree species in Europe. In order to determine their fullest potential (and associated management options, but also assess associated risks and challenges) the need for a communication platform allowing for discussion with stakeholder groups from within anf beyond European borders, is argued.
Duration: 3.6.2014 - 13.5.2018

Response of Norway spruce somatic embryos to abiotic stresses
Odpoveď somatických embryí smreka obyčajného na abiotické stresy
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: Ing. Moravčíková Jana PhD.
Annotation:The aim of the project is to evaluate the response of Norway spruce somatic embryos to abiotic stresses. Somatic embryos will be exposed to different desiccation treatments (high temperature and decreased humidity) and to different doses of UV-B radiation. The alterations of activities of polyamine biosynthetic enzymes and contents of polyamines, abscisic acid (a key endogenous messenger in a plant's response to stresses) and the extent of lipid peroxidation will be evaluated in somatic embryos cultured in stress conditions. The histochemical tests for the presence of polyphenolic substances after the exposure of embryos to UV-B radiationwill complete the biochemical analyses.The collaboration with the Slovak group will complement the research with studies of the family of chitinases at molecular level that will enable to study contemporarily the isoforms important for embryo development as well as dynamics of ongoing stress. The use of somatic embryos will facilitate detailed studies of early physiological responses to various kinds of environmental stresses.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2017

The optimization of the conditions for in vitro reproduction and cultivation of non-traditional fruit lianes Actinidia arguta and Schisandra chinensis cultivars (Ukrainian selection)
Optimalizácia podmienok pre in vitro množenie a kultiváciu netradičných odrôd ovocných lián Actinidia arguta a Schisandra chinensis (ukrajinský výber)
Program: Bilaterálne - iné
Project leader: RNDr. Libiaková Gabriela CSc.
Annotation:This project will initiate cooperation between Institutions in the area of plant micropropagation and will promote level of research. The realization of the project will enable to successfully propagate and cultivate the valuable species for human health (Actinidia arguta and Schizandra chinensis), which will have commercial effect and social and ecological value.
Duration: 6.4.2017 - 6.4.2019

Remarkable elements of lichenbiota of important biotopes of Slovakia and the Czech Republic (SAV-AV ČR 16-07
Pozoruhodné prvky lichenobioty významných biotopov Slovenska a Českej republiky projektu SAV-AV ČR 16-07
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: Mgr. Košuthová Alica PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

Contribution of IB SAS to the international project Millenium Seed Bank
Príspevok BÚ SAV k medzinárodnému projektu Millenium Seed Bank
Program: Iné
Project leader: Ing. Kučera Jaromír PhD.
Annotation:The MSB project is the largest ex situ plant conservation programme in the world. Project focus is on global plant life faced with the threat of extinction and plants of most use for the future. The seeds we save are conserved in seed banks as an insurance against the risk of extinction in their native habitat. Working with network of partners across 80 countries, were successfully banked over 13% of the world's wild plant species. The main goal of the project is to save 25% of those species with bankable seeds by 2020 (75,000 species). IB SAS coordinate seeds colection actvities in Slovakia. Target taxa for seed collecting are endemics, endangered and invasive plants. Seeds are stored at MSB Kew and at Gene Bank in Piešťany. Since 2007 were collected and stored from Slovakia 752 taxa. In future we plan to cover with cooperation of several Institutions from relevant countries whole Carpathians area as well as Balkan Peninsula.
Duration: 1.1.2007 - 31.12.2020

Somatic embryogenesis in selected conifer species: initiation of embryogenic tissues, their maintenance, maturation of somatic embryos and plantlet regeneration
Somatická embryogenéza vybraných druhov ihličnatých drevín: indukcia embryogénnych pletív, ich udržiavanie, maturácia somatických embryí a regenerácia rastlín
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: RNDr. Salaj Terézia DrSc.
Annotation:Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an in vitro process of embryo differentiation from somatic cells of a plant body. In conifers the process involves several steps as: initiation of embryogenic tissues, their maintenance, somatic embryo maturation and plantlet (somatic seedlings) regeneration. Each step requires specific conditions and is affected by several factors. The submitted proposal intends to study the individual steps of SE, mostly the effect of primary explant developmental stage, plant growth regulators influence as well as osmotic potential of the culture medium. Species as Abies alba, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra will be included as experimental material.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

Stress-inducible expression of arabinogalactans and defence-related proteins in relation to androgenesis initiation
Stresom-indukovaná expresia arabinogalaktanov a obranné proteíny v súvislosti s iniciáciou androgenézy
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Project leader: Ing. Moravčíková Jana PhD.
Annotation:Understanding of mechanisms leading to plant embryogenesis under inducible stress conditions (e.g. temperature and/or osmotic stress) at the molecular level is crucial in crop improvement. To overcome resistance of genotypes to microspore embryogenesis (ME) under in vitro conditions, selectable markers for responsiveness/recalcitrance are essential to be identified. Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs, PR3; chitinases) involved in the plant defence (a)biotic responses with arabinogalactans (AGPs), probably functioned in cell division, differentiation and development, seem to be good candidates. The aim of this project is to characterize the expression of PR3 and AGPs in relation to ME induction effectiveness in rye (Secale cereale L.).
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017

Developing new genetic tools for bioassessment of aquatic ecosystems in Europe
Vývoj nových genetických nástrojov na hodnotenie stavu bioty vodných ekosystémov Európy
Program: COST
Project leader: RNDr. Čiampor Fedor PhD.
Duration: 20.10.2016 - 19.10.2020


National projects

Activation, regulation and control of cellular mechanisms in suspension culture and intact tobacco plants elicited with mycotoxins of genus Fusarium
Aktivácia, regulácia a kontrola bunkových mechanizmov v suspenznej kultúre a intaktných rastlinách tabaku elicitovaných mykotoxínmi húb rodu Fusarium
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Repka Vladimír CSc.
Annotation:In terms of food safety, the focus was primarily on the study of the effects of mycotoxins on the biological activity of the cells of animals. Recently, it is beginning to examine the effect of mycotoxins on the plant, particularly the agronomically interesting. The project aims to physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis of basal cell mechanisms of tobacco plants exposed to different fusariotoxins. We will follow anatomic changes in elicited cells, the role of active oxygen species in the process of perception and pharmacological modulation of the responses to mycotoxins elicitation. We will focus on a comparative analysis of regulatory and signaling cascades involved in the response of cells to various fusariotoxins. We will monitor the expression of genes and proteins, as well as the activity of enzymes responsible for the activation, regulation and control of cell response to mycotoxins, which will bring new insights into understanding the principle mechanisms in respect to biotic stress.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Bioecological study of the genus Soldanella section Soldanella (Primulaceae) in the Carpathians, the Hercynian Mts. and Eastern Alps
Bioekologická štúdia taxónov rodu Soldanella sekcia Soldanella (Primulaceae) na území Karpát, Hercýnskych pohorí a Východných Álp
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Slovák Marek PhD.
Annotation:The project aim is to investigate taxonomy and evolution of morphologically closely allied taxa from the genus Soldanella section Soldanella in the Carpathians and adjacent areas of the Hercynian Mts. and Eastern Alps. Wide spectrum of sophisticated approaches of plant systematic will be applied to solve asked questions. Detail morphological, karyological and genetic analyses as well as autecological features at the population level will serve as a basal platform for the taxonomic revision and subsequent creation of new taxonomic concept of studied taxa. Outputs of the project will contribute to deeper understanding of the microevolutionary processes in morphologically closely related and rather recently diversified complexes of vascular plant taxa and also will enable to elucidate their phylogeographic history. Since majority of the taxa under study are endemics with often very restricted distribution area, our data will help in their more effective legislative protection.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Biosystematic study of Carpatho-Pannonian representatives of the genus Sesleria (Poaceae)
Biosystematické štúdium karpatsko-panónskych zástupcov rodu Sesleria (Poaceae)
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Majerová Monika PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2019

Cyanobacteria and accompanying algae in formation of recent freshwater stromatolites
Cyanobaktérie a sprievodné riasy pri tvorbe recentných sladkovodných stromatolitov
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Hindáková Alica PhD.
Annotation:The main scientific goal of the project is to study biodiversity of dominant cyanobacteria recently forming stromatolites in Slovakia. According to our preliminary studies, these specific calcified colonies are composed mainly by genera Rivularia (R. haematites), and by Calothrix, Scytonema, Stigonema and some other oscillatorian species as well. The material is being continuosly collected from recently active travertine localities in Slovakia. Molecular analysis of collected microorganisms and subcultures will confirm morfology based on contemporaly taxonomy. Obtained molecular data will be compared with data from various database in Europe. Accompanying cyanobacteria (e.g. from the genera Chroococcus, Merismopedia, Leptolyngbya, Heteroleibleinia, Nostoc) and algae (diatoms, chlorococcal and trichal green algae) of stromatolites will be studied, too. Material preserved by formaldehyde, microphotos and permanent diatom slides serve for determination, documentary and comparatively purposes. Localities with recent formation of freshwater stromatolites belong to the endangered biotopes, very sensitive to eutrophisation and human activities, therefore their protection is highly topic.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Distribution potential of different fungal trophic groups in Europe
Distribučný potenciál rôznych trofických skupín húb v Európe
Program: APVV
Project leader: Mgr. Adamčík Slavomír PhD.
Duration: 1.7.2016 - 30.6.2020

Diversity and dispersal in metapopulations and metacommunities of small aquatic biotopes
Diverzita a disperzia v metapopuláciách a metaspoločenstvách malých vodných biotopov
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Čiamporová - Zaťovičová Zuzana PhD.
Annotation:Project is aimed at small aquatic biotopes, very important regarding their biodiversity, yet often overlooked and understudied. Project is logically linked to previous projects of team members. Proposed is reasonable improvement of datasets on communities of natural biotopes in lowland and mountain regions, new data will be acquired on human impacted areas, including robust environmental data. Macrophytes, molluscs, zooplankton and aquatic insects were chosen as model groups due to their indication value, different ecological requirements and function in food webs. Main goal is to understand patterns of biological diversity of small water bodies, emphasizing 1) evaluation of the importance of different biotope types for biodiversity preservation, 2) assessment of dispersal and habitat features roles in metacommunity structure and 3) describing extent of connectivity within metapopulations. Reaching the goals will improve effective conservation of aquatic ecosystems – important component of global environment.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Diversity and classification of European grassland vegetation
Diverzita a klasifikácia európskej travinno-bylinnej vegetácie
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Janišová Monika PhD.
Annotation:The diversity studies and classification of vegetation has recently received qualitatively new dimensions, especially thanks to the development of national databases and advanced information technologies. This facilitates the elaboration of large-scale phytosociological syntheses important for basic ecological and biodiversity research and effective habitat conservation at the supra-national level. The main aim of the proposed project is to take part in elaboration of a large-scale supra-national classification of European grassland vegetation of selected habitats. A new classification scheme based on modern formalized methods will be proposed. We believe that the results will contribute to international standardization of vegetation classification in Europe. Simultaneously, the gathered phytosociological material will be used to study grassland diversity patterns and to evaluate the vulnerability of grassland communities at the European scale.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

DNA Barcoding Elmidae – application of molecular taxonomy for description of aquatic beetles biodiversity
DNA Barkoding Elmidae – využitie molekulárnej taxonómie v poznaní biodiverzity vodných chrobákov
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Čiampor Fedor PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2019

Species richness of vascular plants in undestory of beech forests along altitudinal gradient
Druhová bohatosť synúzie vyšších rastlín bukových lesov pozdĺž výškového gradientu
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Valachovič Milan CSc.
Annotation:Beech forests represent the most widespread forest vegetation type in Slovakia with an important sientific and socio-economic value. Species richness trend of vascular plants along altitudinal gradient reflects strong competitive ability of the European beech. The project is focused on i) species richness-altitudinal relationship at various spatial scales, and ii) potential factors controlling this interaction.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Dynamics of human-altered non-forest habitats in the process of ecological restoration
Dynamika antropicky ovplyvnených biotopov nelesnej vegetácie v procese ekologickej obnovy
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Škodová Iveta PhD.
Annotation:Many semi-natural grasslands in the whole Europe are in unfavourable conservation status due to succession changes induced by land abandonment. Project aims to test various management treatments in the ecological restoration of semi-dry, mesic and fen grasslands and to set the conditions for their application. It also tries to test new methods for the elimination of expansive grass species in various ecological conditions. It is also focused on the evaluation of changes after a large-scale restoration. Among the project goals there is also monitoring of temporal dynamics and vegetation changes in anthropogenic non-forest habitats to estimate future trends in grassland vegetation. Project is logically related to several past projects focused on grassland vegetation in Slovakia (SK0115, VEGA 0181/09, VEGA 0099/13), when the network of field experiments was established to study relation between management and species composition (vegetation diversity).
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Evolutionary importance of predation rate on life history adaptations of fishes
Evolučný význam predácie na životné stratégie rýb
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Pekárik Ladislav PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2014 - 31.12.2017

Flora of Slovakia – Asteraceae family (first part): biosystematic study of critical taxa
Flóra Slovenska – čeľaď Asteraceae (1. časť): biosystematické štúdium kritických taxónov
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Mereďa Pavol PhD.
Annotation:The project is focused on taxonomic and chorological revision of selected representatives of the Asteraceae family in Slovakia, or in the wider Central European region, respectively. The main result of the project will be the next series of multivolume work Flora of Slovakia, volume VI/2 (Part 1). Due to the high species richness of this family in Slovakia only its initial tribes, namely Anthemideae, Astereae, Caleduleae, Gnaphalieae, and Senecioneae (with about 50 genera and 165 species) will be addressed in the project. Each taxon will be treated in terms of nomenclature, morphology, karyology, ecology, and chorology. Important part of the publication will be the identification keys (in Slovak and English), original drawings of plants, and maps showing distribution of taxa in Slovakia. Special attention will be paid to taxonomically complex groups of the genera Achillea, Aster s. l., Senecio s. l., Solidago, and Tephroseris, where we plan more detailed systematic, biogeographic, and evolutionary studies published in separate papers.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

ROLOFSYTS - Functional analysis of synaptotagmins in responses of plants to environmental stresses
Funkčná analýza synaptotagmínov so zreteľom na odpovede rastlín na environmentálne stresy
Program: APVV
Project leader: Doc. RNDr. Jásik Ján CSc.
Annotation:Crop yields are largely dependent on their tolerances to environmental influences, including salinity. Previously, we have shown that the Arabidopsis synaptotagmin 1 (AtSYT1), the most abundantly expressed Arabidopsis ortholog of the well-known calcium sensors in animal neurons, is involved in responses to abiotic stresses. The general goal of this proposal is to reveal the mechanisms by which AtSYTs regulate the reactions to high salinity and other stresses. We wish to characterize AtSYTs expression, describe phenotype of Atsyts mutant lines, to study subcellular localisation of AtSYTs, and to monitor intracellular dynamics of AtSYT1. Additionally, we shall address the functional analysis of the interaction fished out in the yeast two hybrid assay connecting AtSYT1 to the MAPK cascade. Our study will contribute to the overall understanding of how membrane trafficking is involved in stress responses.
Duration: 1.6.2017 - 30.6.2021

Hybrid swarms of Scots pine and mountain dwarf pine in Slovakia
Hybridné roje borovice lesnej a borovice horskej-kosodreviny na Slovensku
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Kormuťák Andrej DrSc.
Annotation:The project is oriented towards experimental verification of hybridological relationship between Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and mountain dwarf pine (P. mugo Turra). Within putative hybrid swarms of these species in northern Slovakia, the extent of introgressive hybridization with the parental species mentiontd above will be determined. Except for the classical approaches of artificial hybridization, the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is expected to be used in verification of both the interspecific and intraspecific hybrids of these pines. The degree of genetic divergence between hybrid swarms and natural populations of both parental species will be determined using cpDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. The project aims in validation of the hybrid nature of the putative hybrid swarms on the localities in Zuberec – Medzi Bormi, Suchá Hora and Terchová – Sokolie all of which are taken for rare endemites on our territory.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2019

dyNatura2000sat - Identification and monitoring Natura 2000 habitats by dynamic segmentation of satellite images
Identifikácia a monitoring biotopov Natura 2000 dynamickou segmentáciou satelitných obrazov
Program: APVV
Project leader: RNDr. Šibík Jozef PhD.
Annotation:Project aims to build novel botanical, environmental, mathematical and computational methods for determining exact localization and classification of Natura 2000 habitats and for monitoring their dynamics and qualitative changes by using satellite data and dedicated image processing software. The localization, classification and dynamic space-time monitoring will be based on novel methods for filtering, segmentation and tracking of Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, Sentinel-2 multispectral imaging data and their combination. The image processing software will allow accurate localization of Natura 2000 habitat areas in static and dynamic Earth observation data up to a precision of pixel resolution. Moreover, by the developed software we will be able to monitor continuously the habitat dynamics with alarming option in case of abrupt changes in condition or fragmentation of Natura 2000 protected areas. The methods and software will be developed for localization, classification and monitoring of Natura 2000 habitats in the territory of the Slovak Republic. As the other EU member states are also required to monitor their Natura 2000 habitats, and Slovak Vegetation Database, used for development of our methods and software, is compatible with the databases used in other countries, our methods and software will fit the European Vegetation Database and will have a strong potential to be used for identification and tracking Natura 2000 habitats at least at the European level.
Duration: 1.7.2017 - 30.6.2021

Nitric oxide, phytohormones and reactive oxygen species interactions in barley root responses to heavy metals
Interakcie oxidu dusnatého, fytohormónov a aktívnych foriem kyslíka v odpovedi koreňa jačmeňa na ťažké kovy
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Tamás Ladislav PhD.
Annotation:Prežitie suchozemských rastlín závisí od vysoko koordinovaných signalizačných mechanizmov, ktorými prispôsobujú svoju morfológiu a metabolizmus stále sa meniacemu prostrediu. Je dobre známy fakt, že hormóny a aktívne formy kyslíka (AFK) hrajú kľúčovú úlohu v regulácii stresových odpovedí rastlín. V posledných rokoch sa pri viacerých druhoch rastlín potvrdilo, že za rôznych stresových podmienok je signálna dráha oxidu dusnatého (NO) zahrnutá do modulácie AFK a hormonálnej rovnováhy. Komponenty v rámci jednej signálnej dráhy, ako aj medzi rôznymi dráhami medzi sebou intenzívne interagujú a integrujú vnútorné ontogenetické a vonkajšie signály do morfogénnych a metabolických odpovedí, aby sa maximalizovali šance na prežitie aj v extrémnych podmienkach. Za účelom lepšieho pochopenia úlohy NO v interakcii hormónov a AFK cieľom predkladaného projektu je analýza potenciálnych súvislostí medzi NO, AFK a hormónmi v regulácii odpovedí indukovaných ťažkými kovmi v koreňových apexoch jačmeňa.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2019

Cryptic refugia and diversification patterns of aquatic invertebrates in the Western Carpathians
Kryptické refúgiá a vzory diverzifikácie vodných bezstavovcov Západných Karpát
Program: APVV
Project leader: RNDr. Čiampor Fedor PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017

Carnivorous plants – prospective source of genes for hydrolytic enzymes with antifungal potential
Mäsožravé rastliny – perspektívny zdroj génov pre hydrolytické enzýmy s antifungálnym potenciálom
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Libantová Jana CSc.
Annotation:Chitinases play a role in the development and physiology of plants and in stress responses. The model object of this project is a carnivorous plant, Drosera rotundifolia L., from which the gene for chitinase (DrChit) involved in digestive processes of prey was isolated. As chitinous cell wall of fungal pathogens is also degraded by chitinases that are expressed during the plant defense, the DrChit has a potential use in biotechnology aimed at the plant resistance reinforcement. Here we focus on the isolation and purification of DrChit protein, its biochemical characterization and antifungal potential determination. Next, we will isolate and characterize the other genes with the carnivorous expression profile. To clarify the role of chitinases in defense, the chitinase expression profiles in embryogenic cultures of conifers exposed to abiotic stress will be evaluated as well. We suppose these results may contribute to the development of strategies for plant resistance to stress by genetic engineering approach.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2019

Microhabitat use of sexual and Conal forms of loach fishes of the genus Cobitis (Cypriniformes) in Odra and Danube River basins
Mikrohabitatové preferencie sexuálnych a klonálnych foriem pĺžov rodu Cobitis v povodí Odry a Dunaja
Program: APVV
Project leader: Mgr. Pekárik Ladislav PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017

Micropropagation and cryopreservation of less known small fruit species
Mikropropagácia a kryoprezervácia menej známych druhov drobného ovocia
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Gajdošová Alena CSc.
Annotation:Berry fruits are characterized by high nutritional value and are considered as nutraceutical food. In spite of the increasing demand for berry fruits on the market their cultivation is not spread in Slovakia because of the lack of planting material of wider cultivar assortment and its high price. Rapid and profitable clonal propagation of planting material is possible to reach using tissue cultures. The project will be focused i) on elaboration of systems for micropropagation of some introduced less known small fruit species (Vaccinium, Rubus, Lonicera, Amelanchier spp.) utilizable in large-scale propagation of planting material; ii) on development of protocol for long-term storage of small fruit genetic resources by cryopreservation; iii) on testing of genetic fidelity of in vitro derived and after cryopreservation regenerated plants using molecular markers, what enables to evaluate suitability of elaborated protocols for their application for routine propagation and long-term storage of genetic resources.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Molecular methods in breeding of naturally gluten free amaranth
Molekulárne metódy v šľachtení prirodzene bezlepkového amarantu
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Hricová Andrea PhD.
Annotation:The efficient and high-throughput methods of current biology significantly reduce plant breeding process and allow to very precisely define valuable original plant material that can be obtained also by using modern biotechnology approaches. These tools are great value to support conventional breeding for sustainable food production especially under the climate change and meet demand over growing human population. By coupling these modern approaches we will contribute to knowledge on genome and proteome of amaranth (Amaranth sp.), naturally gluten-free pseudocereal with exceptional nutrition attributes, that is becoming more recognized and appreciated in a diet. Main purpose of the project will be extensive characterization of first Slovak amaranth variety PRIBINA as well as the other mutants previously generated by mutation breeding. Based on positively changed traits we will select another mutant lines, insert them to variety evaluation process to be registered as new varieties.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2018

Unraveling processes responsible for the contemporary geographic range of symbiotic organisms with Mediterranean distribution
Odkrývanie procesov zodpovedných za súčasný geografický areál symbiotických organizmov s Mediteránnym rozšírením
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Bérešová Anna PhD.
Annotation:Lichenization is one of the most successful fungal nutritional strategies that also enable lichens to adapt to changing ecological conditions. The aim of the project is to find out, whether symbiotic interactions play any role in shaping lichen distributional range. We focus on model lichens with Mediterranean distribution. We aim to find out whether photobiont diversity matches the so far unrecognized genetic diversity of the mycobiont across its distributional range. In particular, we will search for an evidence of photobiont switching, which can be a driver for increase in ecological plasticity of some lichen species.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Polyploidy and allopatric differentiation as speciation drivers in the Brassicaceae family
Polyploidia a alopatrická diferenciácia ako mechanizmy speciácie v čeľadi Brassicaceae
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Španiel Stanislav PhD.
Annotation:In the project we will study polyploid origins, phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history in species complexes from three Brassicaceae genera: Alyssum, Odontarrhena and Cardamine. We aim to generalize the observed patterns and elucidate major evolutionary processes that have driven diversification and speciation in these polyploid species groups. We will also revise controversial species circumscriptions and propose new taxonomic treatments. A combination of multiple methods will be used: multivariate morphometrics, flow cytometric ploidy level screening, and DNA sequencing of different target regions (including a high-throughput sequencing method). We will also develop an online karyological and nomenclatural database of the tribe Cardamineae that will help to stimulate further evolutionary studies in this group. Our studies will contribute to better understanding of plant evolution and to effective conservation of species diversity of the studied genera.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Why are some species narrowly endemic while their congeners are geographically widespread? Role of biological traits and genetic variability studied in the three groups of the closely related taxa from the family Asteraceae
Prečo sú niektoré druhy úzko endemické a iné široko rozšírené? Štúdium významu biologických vlastností a genetickej variability v troch skupinách blízko príbuzných taxónov z čeľade Asteraceae
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Šingliarová Barbora PhD.
Annotation:The project aims at study of determinants of species rarity in thethree model groups from the family Asteraceae (Tephroseris longifolia agg., Cyanus napulifer group and Pilosella alpicola group) by comparing various biological traits and genetic diversity of the rare (often endemic) and widespread congeners. A combined approach including geneticanaly sesemploy in ghighly variable molecular markers (AFLP, SSRs) as well as analyses of fitness, ecological niche and spreading potential (by common garden experiments, GIS digitallayers, soil analyses) will be applied. Results of the project will bring valuable information on specific factors determining range size in selected plant groups from Asteraceae family, but also help to find common features and more general regularities in unravelled patterns and processes. Moreover, outputs of this project will serve as a baseline for conservation recommendations as each of systematic groups investigated harbours also taxa endangered by recent human activities.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

The genus Camarophyllopsis in Europe and North America
Rod Camarophyllopsis v strednej Európe a S. Amerike
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Mgr. Adamčík Slavomír PhD.
Annotation:Camarophyllopsis is insufficiently known genus of basidiomycetes without a consumer and commercial value. Recently, 10 species are described from the area of Europe, 8 from area of North America (USA) and 9 more from other parts of the world. In area of central Europe are often reported only C. atropuncta, C. foetens and C. shulzeri, C. foetens is the only species reported from Slovakia. There are other six unreported species in the area of Slovakia according to our preliminary field observations (unpublished data). The aim of proposed project is, therefore, the preparation for a modern European identification guide covering Camarophyllopsis taxa (based on collections from the area of Europe and North America). Other aim of the project is confirm or disprove transatlantic distribution pattern of some species. The first phylogenetic study revealed polyphyly of the genus, part of the species have been combined in the genus Hodophilus and one species is described in a new genus Lamelloclavaria. Multi-locusphylogenetic analyses of European and North American material of Hodophilus species with naphthaleneodours reveal no species with transatlantic distributions. Five species of this group are recognised in North America, including two new to science.
Duration: 1.1.2014 - 31.12.2017

(Disentangling evolutionary relationships across morphologically and ecologically diverse lichen genus Solenopsora)
Rozpletanie evolučných vzťahov v morfologicky a ekologicky rôznorodom rode Solenopsora (lišajníky)
Program: APVV
Project leader: Mgr. Bérešová Anna PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2017

Screening and transformation of data of model centers of biodiversity for understanding of ecological and phylogenetical relationships of rare and endangered species of fungi
Skríning a transformácia dát z modelových centier biodiverzity pre pochopenie ekologických a fylogenetických vzťahov vybraných vzácnych a ohrozených druhov húb
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Lizoň Pavel CSc.
Annotation:Fungi represent one of the richest groups of organisms (estimation 1.5 mil. species) and are also endangered by human activities. Decrease or spread of species could significantly influence biodiversity and cause negative changes in biological systems. Because knowledge of biodiversity and distribution, and taxonomy of rare and endangered species of fungi may contribute significantly to accurate management of the environment, endangered species of fungi listed in the Red list of fungi of Slovakia are the target group for this project. Material collected in selected model centers of biodiversity will be studied by morphometric and molecular methodologies. Joint research will allow to share facilities of the partner institutions and to train young researchers in field and analytical methodologies. Results of the project will be presented in scientific journals and on conferences, and they will be implemented also in management strategies and in selection of Important Fungus Areas (IFA).
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

The assessment of biological value of the drainage ditches
Stanovenie biologickej hodnoty odvodňovacích kanálov
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Čejka Tomáš PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2014 - 31.12.2017

Synanthropisation of the forest communities: Analysis of factors affecting distribution of alien plants in forests
Synantropizácia lesných spoločenstiev: analýza faktorov ovplyvňujúcich výskyt nepôvodných druhov rastlín v lesoch
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Jarolímek Ivan CSc.
Annotation:Invasion of alien species, especially during the last decades, represents growing threat for the diversity of natural habitats, including forests. While considerable attention was already paid to anthropogenic and ruderal vegetation in the urban environments and built-up areas, only very few studies focused on the alien species in forest habitats, as forests appeared to be more resistant to invasions by alien plants. Recent studies revealed that it was only a temporary phenomenon and many forest habitats are continually being invaded by alien species, what is negatively affecting their biodiversity. The aim of the project is to evaluate the level of invasion of various types of forest habitats and to characterize the effect of selected environmental factors, type of forest management and changes in horizontal and vertical structure of the stands on the level of invasion of the stands.
Duration: 1.1.2015 - 31.12.2018

Studying of the function of dehydrin genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in the tolerance to selected types of abiotic stresses
Štúdium funkcie génov dehydrínov z Arabidopsis thaliana pri tolerancii voči vybraným typom abiotického stresu
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Moravčíková Jana PhD.
Annotation:Due to the changes in the environment, plants are increasingly exposed to different types of abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, low temperature or the presence of heavy metals. A part of plant response is a modulation of the cellular metabolism and production of a wide range of proteins including dehydrins. Dehydrins are hydrophilic proteins that are induced mainly under of low temperature or dehydration. The mechanism of their action has not been clarified yet. The work is aimed to study the effect of constitutive expression of Arabidopsis dehydrin genes At1g54410, At2g21490 and At3g50970 on the tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants against selected types of abiotic stresses, and their combinations. Their structures contain histidine-rich regions that have potential to bind free metals; therefore, it could contribute to increased tolerance to heavy metals. At the same time we will study the extent to which the overexpression of dehydrin genes interact with other components of plant defense.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2019

PLADEFNUT - Studying the effect of different nutritional conditions on the accumulation of toxic elements in wheat
Štúdium vplyvu rôznych nutričných podmienok na akumuláciu toxických elementov v pšenici
Program: APVV
Project leader: Ing. Moravčíková Jana PhD.
Annotation:The project addresses the impact of two important environmental contaminants on plants at present, namely the presence of toxic metals, excessive amounts / concentrations of nitrogen and their combinations. Both factors are the result of the development of industry, agriculture and chemical production that are associated with a large number of pollutants, primarily sulfur oxides, nitrogen, carbon emissions and heavy metals. Knowledge about plant defense mechanisms against these factors is limited. Especially the effects of excessive fertilization on accumulation of metals as well as on the plants themselves are at deeper levels little studied. The project will address this issue comprehensively through the study of antioxidant enzymes and quantitative/qualitative changes in profiles of typical plant defense proteins. In parallel line of project we will characterize a set of varieties of wheat grown in Slovakia for genetic potential to accumulate cadmium using available molecular markers. The project will generate new knowledge about the molecular background of plant responses to relatively little studied types of stress. These will be evaluated for potential use as markers for tolerance /sensitivity to metal toxicity or excessive application of fertilizers. Knowledge on the effect of increasing concentrations of nitrogen to plants and their defense capacity will be useful for the management of fertilizer application in agriculture. The project will also contribute to the characterization of wheat germplasm from Slovakia in terms of potential health risk when grown on contaminated territories.
Duration: 1.7.2016 - 30.6.2020

Study of selected physiological and molecular factors involved in regeneration and growth of parasitic weeds of Phelipanche spp.
Štúdium vybraných fyziologických a molekulárnych parametrov zahrnutých v regenerácii a raste parazitických burín Phelipanche spp.
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Matúšová Radoslava PhD.
Annotation:Parasitic plants of Phelipanche, Orobanche and Striga spp. belong to economically important plant pathogens with negative impact on agriculture. They are causing an annual loss of more then 7 billion US$. After germination these parasitic plants attach to the root system of host plants and acquire water and all nutrients from the host. There is no effective method to eliminate these weeds at present. Therefore the scientists focus their research on identification of genes and mechanisms involved in interactions between parasitic plants and their hosts. The main goal of this project is study of factors influencing growth and regeneration of Phelipanche spp. under in vitro conditions. This knowledge together with developed protocols for Phelipanche genetic transformation will allow to study functions of genes involved in parasite-host interactions and help in development of novel methods for the selective control of root parasitic weeds.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Taxonomy and phylogeny of genera Roraima Kodada & Jäch and Neblinagena Spangler (Coleoptera: Elmidae)
Taxonómia a fylogenéza rodov Roraima Kodada & Jäch a Neblinagea Spangler (Coleoptera: Elmidae)
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Čiampor Fedor PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2014 - 31.12.2017

Taxonomic and nomenclatural revision of diversity of vascular plants of Slovakia
Taxonomická a nomenklatorická revízia diverzity cievnatých rastlín Slovenska
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Letz Dominik Roman PhD.
Annotation:The main aim of the project is to carry out thorough taxonomic, nomenclatural and chorological revision of diversity of vascular plants of Slovakia. New checklist of taxa will be published as an important reference source not only for botanists and other fields of science dealing with vascular plants, but also for legal issues, nature conservation, agriculture and forestry. The revision will critically respect all the actual data on the flora of Slovakia as well as latest discoveries in plant phylogeny and taxonomy. The checklist will be compatible with the current Euro-Mediterranean checklist (Euro+Med PlantBase) and other international standards. Within the project, numerous nomenclature issues will be dealt with that will result also in papers published in international journals. Web portal created for the new checklist will be a single access point not only for the information on accepted plant names and synonyms, but also for the vernacular names, and other data.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation of IRT1 gene, a key transporter of iron in plant roots
Transkripčná, posttranskripčná a posttranslačná regulácia génu IRT1, rozhodujúceho transportéra železa v koreni rastlín
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Doc. RNDr. Jásik Ján CSc.
Annotation:Using transgenic and mutant lines in combination with the current genetic, molecular biological, histochemical, immunological, fluorometric, chemical analytical and microscopic methods we want to explore whether and how the presence or absence of iron and other metal elements transferred by IRT1 protein may affect the activity of IRT1 promoter, the process of RNA splicing, localization, turnover and intracellular dynamics of IRT1 protein varieties in roots of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Examination of multi-level regulation of the IRT1 gene and simultaneous monitoring of the contents and the distribution of iron and other metallic components in the plants will yield valuable information for applications in biotechnology in order to enrich the plants with iron and / or to limit the absorption of potentially toxic metal elements. The findings may be useful in the agricultural breeding practice to obtain higher yielding varieties and tolerant plants to environmental stress caused by heavy metals.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Alder forest vegetation – the role of zonal and micro-site gradients in azonal vegetation
Vegetácia jelšových lesov – úloha zonálnych a stanovištných gradientov v azonálnej vegetácii
Program: VEGA
Project leader: Ing. Hrivnák Richard PhD.
Annotation:In the worldwide area of the alder-dominated forests, their plant species-rich understory is characterized by higher constancy and cover of species having various ecological requirements. In addition to the syntaxonomical evaluation of alder forests in the Western Carpathians, this project is aimed at effect of environmental factors on species composition variability and species richness pattern. The complex research of spatial distribution and synecology, the supplementation of vegetation and environmental information along with comprehensive analysis of the structure of endangered, rare, phytogeographical important and alien species will provide new knowledge about actual composition pattern in these azonal plant communities.
Duration: 1.1.2014 - 31.12.2017

The Effects of Interactions Between Wild Herbivores and Vegetation on Processes in Alpine Ecosystems
Vplyv interakcií voľnej žijúcich bylinožravcov a vegetácie na procesy vo vysokohorských ekosystémoch
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Šibík Jozef PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2019

Effect of silicon and salicylic acid on physiological and metabolical processes in maize plants stressed by antimony (Sb) and nickel (Ni)
Vplyv kremíka a kyseliny salicylovej na fyziologické a biochemické procesy rastlín kukurice vystavených stresu z antimónu (Sb) a niklu (Ni)
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Luxová Miroslava CSc.
Annotation:The increased attention to the environmental contamination by heavy metals is paid over the last few decades. One of the potential environmental contaminants is antimony. Sb in large amounts enters the environment by anthropogenic activity. Nickel is considered as essential element that is toxic to most plants at higher concentrations. Ni is accumulated in soils mainly due to sewage sludge deposition, application of industrial compost or atmospheric fallout, near processing factories. In this project we will study the responses of maize plants stressed by Sb and Ni at the level of biomass production and at the biochemical (formation of ROS, activity of antioxidative enzymes) and physiological (membrane damage, changes in content and expression of proteins) level. We will determine whether the individual application of silicon or salicylic acid or their combination can protect maize plants from Sb or Ni toxicity by fine-tuning the antioxidative system of plants and/or improving plant growth and development.
Duration: 1.1.2017 - 31.12.2020

Silicon-mediated inhibition of fungal phytopathogen invasion into the plant roots
Využitie kremíka pri potlačení invázie fytopatogénnych húb do koreňov rastlín
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Luxová Miroslava CSc.
Annotation:Sorghum bicolor is the fifth most cultivated cereal world-wide with food and technical usage. The quantity and quality of produced biomass are affected by fungal disease. The goal of this project is to find out if the silicon application can enhance the root defence against phytopathogenic fungus either by specific deposition of silicate aggregates or by metabolic changes in the plant roots. The invasive properties of fungus, the production of host biomass, of reactive oxygen species, of antioxidative enzymes, and their activities, the silicon content and localisation in the host, and quantification of potentialy mitigating effects of silicon will be done after selection of suitable genotypes of host and pathogen. The expected benefit of silicon to decrease the negative effects resulting from the phytopathogen – host interaction could be applicable in agricultural praxis to protect the sorghum against the attack of phytopathogen by application of silicon.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2019

MASnPNO - The application of myrosinase for sulforaphane activation in development of a novel product exhibiting cancer prevention effects
Využitie myrozinázy na aktiváciu sulforafanu pre vývoj preparátu s preventívnymi účinkami nádorových ochorení
Program: APVV
Project leader: doc. RNDr. Salaj Ján DrSc.
Annotation:Effects of sulphoraphane on cencer prevention was already proven. Sulforaphane is often presents in food at the non-effective level for fulfillment the prevention effects. In addition, the natural glucosinolate form of sulforaphane, glucorafanine, is much less effective, therefore its activation to sulforaphane is needed. This conversion is catalysed by enzyme, myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147). Aim of the current project is to design the new product based on sulforaphane-glucosinolate and stabilized myrosinase as combine product.
Duration: 1.7.2017 - 30.6.2021

Life on the border of extinction – surviving potential of halophytes in Slovakia
Život na hranici zániku - možnosti zachovania halofytov vo flóre Slovenska
Program: VEGA
Project leader: RNDr. Dítě Daniel PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 - 31.12.2019

Projects total: 52